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    CONSTRUCTION OF COMPUTABLE RURAL-URBAN HOUSEHOLD CARBON ACCOUNT FRAMEWORK NESTED IN URBAN CARBON ACCOUNT

    LIU Gengyuan, WANG Lina, GAO Yuan, et al
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 1-12.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240304.003
    Abstract48)      PDF(pc) (2129KB)(38)       Save

    Household as the basic social unit is the major consuming entity. Carbon emission responsibilities established on consumption end are helpful to clarify the stakeholder-based dynamic mechanism for carbon reduction.  The present personal carbon management has a lot of issues, with unclear carbon emission boundary, complex personal carbon trading, personal carbon reduction entangling, and lack of stable management system, which can be resolved if household end as the trading base with urban-rural household carbon account being the core. This paper aims at establishing household carbon account framework on the basis of account range, margin, measurable methods and expandable linkage between urban carbon account and personal carbon sink. This paper summarizes the research situation of personal carbon account and household carbon account, and establishes a urban-rural household carbon account system including three sub-accounts of asset, equity and debits, and determines the measure margin, sampling method and calculation of household carbon account based on China’s featured carbon emission management system. Linkage of urban-rural household carbon account to urban carbon account has been further explained, and its methods have also been designed. Relation between urban-rural household carbon account and  individual carbon inclusion is differentiated. Combination of household carbon account with carbon market, visible hand carbon quota market with invisible hand carbon reduction equity market provides a new path for household consumption end carbon reduction, which may avoid overlapping responsibilities and easily link to China’s carbon management system. Urban-rural household carbon account can be a vital tool for China’s carbon management and carbon reduction, supporting carbon emission quota allocation, carbon reduction and trading, incentive mechanism design for carbon inclusion and mobilization of multi-level nested carbon reduction systems in cities.

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    ASSET VALUES MATERIALIZATION MECHANISM OF FOREST CARBON SEQUESTRATION RESOURCES FROM PERSPECTIVE OF GAINS

    CAI Weimin, WANG Yanqiu, LIN Guobin, et al.
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 13-22.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240304.004
    Abstract28)      PDF(pc) (1992KB)(15)       Save

    Asset values materialization of forest carbon sequestration resources plays a key role in obtaining the pilot objective of collective-owned natural resources asset entrust. This paper, based on a framework of situation-proposal-theory-system, studies how to materialize the asset values of forest carbon sequestration resources, providing reference for stakeholders to gain from ownership. Forest storage expansion method and market value method are used to measure the forest carbon sequestration values balance of China’s recent four times of inventorying forest resources with results showing that the balance is huge and has been steadily increasing, which explains the significance of this study. Governmental public data shows that forest carbon sequestration, owning huge values, can be converted into gains only from a small proportion. Forest administrations largely rely on governmental funding. It is vital to create new model to materialize forest carbon sequestration values, to convert balance into asset gains and to realize stakeholders’ benefits. This paper, based on the core connotation of Marxist dialectical materialism, presents a point of gain system view that is macroscopic, linking, and developing design. It equally treats natural resources’ economic values and asset gains, from gains to all-sharing objective. Each key step has been linked to materialize the economic values of forest carbon sequestration resource assets. Based on gain system view, this paper constructs the theoretical mechanism of forest carbon sequestration resource assets from overall framework, key steps and guarantees, initially forming a theoretical system which is employed to conduct system construction. Gains can be obtained through market, finance and industries, and suggestions on system optimization are given. Guarantees of gains can be through interactive-complete entrust, and also through collective ownership in distribution system from three distributions among central government, local government, enterprise and all people. Gain budget and use management should be established to make gain distribution institutional, normalized and public. 

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    DIGITAL FINANCE, COMMERCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND ENTERPRISE’S DUAL INNOVATION

    TONG Jixin, YIN Ming
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 23-35.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240304.002
    Abstract20)      PDF(pc) (1379KB)(14)       Save
    This paper, based on provincial panel data and enterprise microscopic dataset from 2011 to 2019, establishes a bi-directional fixed effect model to study the impacts of digital finance on enterprise’s dual innovation and its mechanism from commercial environment. Regression coefficients of digital finance on enterprise’s radical innovation and incremental innovation are positive; the radical innovation can rise by 58.83% and incremental innovation by 49.92% upon digital finance’s rising by 1%, suggesting that digital finance largely boost enterprise’s innovation through coverage and depth, stepping out of “low locked” situation for a higher innovation. Regression coefficients of digital finance on enterprise’s dual innovation in central and western regions are 2.607 7 and 1.237 8 respectively, higher than 0.391 7 in the eastern region, suggesting digital finance exerts a stronger marginal effect on enterprise’s dual innovation in the central and western regions where financial resources are insufficient due to geographic resources occurrence variance, compared with the developed eastern region. On mechanism test, regression coefficients of digital finance to radical innovation and commercial environment are 0.588 3 and 0.429 9, outstanding above 1%, marking their positive relation. Impacting coefficient of commercial environment on radical innovation is 1.032, and mediating effect of commercial environment reaches 74.19%. On incremental innovation, direct effect is opposite to indirect effect, and commercial environment plays a covering effect on incremental innovation. As digital finance gains more supports, improving commercial environment will make enterprises put more resources in radical innovation, thus less in incremental innovation. This paper puts forward suggestions on continuously optimizing digital finance policies, establishing regional digital finance coordination and financial servicing platform to provide enterprises’ dual innovation with external security and to stimulate their inner drive.
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    CORRELATION MEASUREMENT AND EFFECTS OF CHINA’S NEW ENERGY INDUSTRIES

    YAO Baoshuai, BAO Ning, LIU Xianting, et al
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 36-52.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240306.002
    Abstract13)      PDF(pc) (1751KB)(25)       Save
    Energy consumption transformation is necessary in the new developing era. Energy structure transformation based on new energy is an important part in China’s modernization. This paper, in order to study the impact of China’s new energy industries on economy, compiles new energy economy input/output tables of 2015, 2017, 2018 and 2020. To further analyze the inner connection within new energy industries, this paper uses structural decomposition to estimate endogenous multiplier effect, drawback effect and spillover effect of new energy industries. New energy industrial scale has been increasing, with its added value rate at a high level but its impact less than the average, not strong enough to boost economy. New energy industrial sectors have no strong inner correlation, but they have post-direct correlation with all industrial sectors, including manufacturing and construction under indirect depletion. Static decomposition shows that endogenous multiplier effect, drawback effect and spillover effect of new energy industries are all below the average, among which spillover effect is the major source of its increasing output, but falling in 2020, roughly equal to endogenous multiplier effect’s contribution. The further dynamic decomposition suggests that the major source of increased outputs is stimulated by other sectors’ final demand to its sectors’ final demand and to other new sectors’ final demand. Generally, new energy industries have a rising correlation with other industries. New energy industries are at an upgrading stage. This paper presents suggestions on boosting research and development to intensify its leading role in economy, planning its industrial cluster and linking with such industries as manufacturing and construction, giving supportive policies to increase its sensing capacity. 
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    MULTI-SCENARIO DEMAND FORECAST OF RAW NICKEL IN CHINA BASED ON GRAY GM-BP NEURAL NETWORK COMPOUND MODEL

    ZHOU Wenxiao, ZHAN Cheng, ZHANG Zhouyi, et al
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 53-66.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231123.001
    Abstract25)      PDF(pc) (1530KB)(21)       Save
    National Mineral Resources Planning (2016-2020), issued in 2016, lists nickel as strategic mineral. China is the largest nickel consumer, but insufficient in nickel resources with high dependence on external supply. Scientific forecast of raw nickel demand is of significance to secure nickel production and supply chains. This paper uses gray correlation to select China’s stainless steel production, GDP per capita, electroplating market scale, urbanization rate, industrial structure, and new energy vehicle production as driving variables to forecast nickel demand under different scenarios from demand side, and combines gray GM(1, 1) model with BP neural network to construct a GM-BP model based on residual minimization, which is used to forecast China’s nickel demand from 2015 to 2035. This compound model is effective in forecasting non-linear sequence data, with the fitting error smaller than GM(1, 1) model. China’s demand for raw nickel is forecasted at 1 822.2 kt in 2025, 2 720.8 kt in 2030 and 3 951.7 kt in 2035 at an annual rising rate of 4.26% in the 14th  Five-Year Plan, 10.54% in the 15th  Five-Year Plan and 9.78% in the 16th  Five-Year Plan. The rising demand trend for raw nickel will lead to a conflict between its supply and demand. China has to raise its supply capacity and decrease dependence on imports. This paper presents suggestions on upgrading stainless steel industry, optimizing processing and producing new alloy materials, and on boosting nickel exploration and development, and on diversifying import sources, and on supporting Chinese investors’ overseas nickel projects.
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    IMPACTS OF MANUFACTURING AGGLOMERATION ON CHINA’S GREEN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BASED ON ADJUSTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS

    BIAN Yinyu, ZHANG Yongqing
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (2): 67-75.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240304.001
    Abstract9)      PDF(pc) (1263KB)(6)       Save

    To achieve sustainability of China’s manufacturing and to increase economic growth quality, this paper studies the impacts of manufacturing agglomeration on China’s green total factor productivity, and discusses the effects of different environmental regulations during the process. Based on the panel data of China’s 30 provinces from 2005 to 2018, this paper uses ultra-efficiency SBM model, which is non-desired output, non-directional and non-angular, to measure their green total factor productivity, and applies Tobit regression model to analyze the impacts of manufacturing on China’s green total factor productivity, and to verify the adjustment of market-stimulating, command controlling and public-involved environmental regulations between manufacturing agglomeration and China’s green total factor productivity. Manufacturing agglomeration is outstandingly negative to China’s green total factor productivity above 1%, suggesting China’s manufacturing still in a highly polluting and energy-consuming model. Crowding effect of industrial agglomeration is larger than economic scale effect, adversely affecting green total factor productivity. Among different environmental regulations, command-controlling and public-involving are conspicuously positive to manufacturing agglomeration above 1%, suggesting both largely constrain the adverse impacts of manufacturing agglomeration on green total factor productivity, while market-stimulating environmental regulation is negative and fails the significance test, meaning it has no adjustment function. China’s manufacturing layout needs further improvement and its industrial structure needs to be adjusted to promote a green transformation of China’s economy. Government shall optimize environmental laws and regulations to fulfill their driving roles in green development.

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    MEASUREMENT AND TEMPORAL-SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION OF BEIJING-TIANJIN-HEBEI (JJJ) CITY CLUSTER’S QUALITY DEVELOPMENT
    KE Wenlan, LI Wenhui, YAN Jingjing
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240016.003
    Abstract80)      PDF(pc) (8058KB)(248)       Save
    China is entering a new era with its economy turning to quality development from rapid growth. JJJ, as a new capital economic zone, plays a key role in demonstrating city cluster’s quality development. This paper, aiming at JJJ’s coalition in developing strategy for a quality city cluster’s quality development, this paper, based on JJJ"s 13 perfectures’ 2011 to 2020 data, uses the contents of quality development to establish a comprehensive evaluation index system for JJJ city cluster’s quality development, and employs entropy-TOPSIS model to estimate JJJ city cluster’s 2011 to 2020 quality developing index, and applies coupling coordination model & spatial autocorrelation model to study its coupling coordinating level, temporal-spatial evolutionary trend and spatial concentrating effect.The coupling coordination of JJJ city cluster’s quality development shows a weak-then-strong trend, with major cities in coordination in 2011 to 2015 changing to developing cities, at a decreasing coupling coordination, but rising after 2015. The coupling has been steadily rising, 84% of JJJ’s cities are rising in their coupling, most with strong correlation among economy, eco-environment, innovation, and civilian welfare. Temporal-spatial pattern of coordination has not changed, Cangzhou, Tianjin, Tangshan and Qinhuangdao have always been at the tier 2 except Beijing seats atop. Spatial evolutionary pattern of quality development suggests Beijing, Tianjin and Langfang are in the core area of city cluster’s quality development, radiating outward to southeast, falling toward northeast. Economy, eco-environment innovation and civilian welfare are the same. JJJ’s city cluster’s quality development has a positive overall auto-correlation, cities of high quality development are geographically closer, with outstanding spatial heterogeneity, their capitals are mainly located in the promoting area, Cangzhou, Hengshui and Qinhuangdao in the transition zone, and Langfang in the radiation zone, negatively correlated. A key mission for JJJ’s city cluster’s quality development is to make up the regional developing gap. This paper presents suggestions on accelerating industrial transformation to diminish regional gap, intensifying environmental cooperation to promote green development, activating regional resources to drive innovation, and jointly constructing public services to share the dividends.
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    CHINA’S 2012 TO 2021 INDUSTRIAL DEVIATION BASED ON IMPROVED THEIL INDEX AND SHIFT-SHARE MODEL
    GAO Xiaowei, ZHANG Yingkun, LI Hua, et al.
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (1): 15-24.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231212.002
    Abstract46)      PDF(pc) (1369KB)(35)       Save

    Overviews over references reveal that defects are existing in traditional industrial deviation E coefficient, Theil Index and Shift-Share model. Defects in E coefficient and Theil Index are in calculating principles, and those in Shift-Share model are in rationality of selecting reference system and feasibility of data collection. This paper presents an improved model that is used to study China’s 2012 to 2021 industrial deviation via cases. It concludes that China’s industrial deviation is diminishing. According to the corrected model and combined with the current global environment, this paper suggests that the first industry rely on scientific innovation to promote rural labors’ orderly migration between urban and rural areas and to materialize agricultural scale and modernization, that the second industry needs to be upgraded to reach and maintain an independent and complete industrial system, to inputs more in basic research to outbreak western technical blockage, that the third industry be focusing on financing and scientific education, increasing Hongkong, Shanghai and Beijing’s positions in world financing center, using financial innovation to avoid unfavorable constraints and impacts from global financing system, practicing the strategy for invigorating the country through science and education and exploring educational modes appropriate China’s situation from primary school to university stages.

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    THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS AND VARIATIONS IN ENERGY STRUCTURE ADJUSTMENT UNDER CARBON NEUTRALITY TARGET IN THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA REGION

    WANG Lixiang, WANG Jianmin
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (1): 25-34.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20240016.001
    Abstract48)      PDF(pc) (1265KB)(45)       Save

    The 20th Report presented an objective of carbon peaking and neutralization. Energy structural adjustment is a vital means to reach carbon neutralization. This paper, based on their symbiosis of carbon emission and economic growth, incorporates economic quality development into carbon neutralization objective. In terms of their 2017 inputs/outputs of three province and one city in Yangtze River delta, this paper establishes a regional macro- and microscopic SAM table and CGE model, and sets up a macroscopic economic closed system, which are used to study the impacts and variance of energy structural adjustment on Yangtze River delta’s economy. As energy structural transformation advances, its economic impacts vary. In Jiangsu province, when clean energy has been replaced at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, the economic impacts of multiple indicators gain a biggest loss at 5%, loss at 10% less than at 5% and 15%. Economic dependance on fossil fuels varies with location, less in Anhui and Shanghai, then Jiangsu, and Zhejiang receives the biggest impacts. Economic impacts waves as energy structural adjustment moves forward. When Jiangsu’s clean energy is replaced at 10%, economic impacts of most indicators from agricultural, manufacturing, servicing, GDP and governmental income are less than when clean energy is replaced at 5% and at 15%. Energy structural adjustment is a critical approach to carbon neutralization in Yangtze River delta and even nationwide.

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    IMPACTS OF NEW ENERGY VEHICLE INDUSTRIAL AGGLOMERATION ON REGIONAL GREEN ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY BASED ON A CASE STUDY ON YANGTZE RIVER ECONOMIC ZONE
    YANG Kaijun, CAO Anqi, FANG Cihui
    Resources & Industries    2024, 26 (1): 35-49.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231213.002
    Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (1371KB)(71)       Save

    This paper incorporates industrial agglomeration, green technical innovation and green economic efficiency to study the impact of new energy vehicle industrial agglomeration on green economic efficiency in Yangtze River economic zone, aiming at offering references for China to reach strategic objectives of manufacturing power and to develop new energy vehicles in Yangtze River economic zone under the dual-carbon settings. This paper, based on 11 provinces/cities’ 2012 to 2020 panel data along Yangtze River economic zone, uses super-efficiency SBM and locality entropy to establish a measuring model, which is employed to study impacts of new energy vehicle industrial agglomeration on green economic efficiency. And discusses mediating effects of green technical innovation. The spatial overflowing effects and regional heterogeneity of new-energy vehicle industrial agglomeration on green economic efficiency also were analyzed. The entire Yangtze River economic zone has become a zoned new energy vehicle industrial agglomeration area, with its agglomerating level fluctuating up over years, and increasing from down- to upper-stream with growing variance. New energy vehicle industrial agglomeration promotes the green economic efficiency in Yangtze River economic zone through consolidating internal network resources and boosting external entire capabilities. Development of industrial agglomeration promotes green technical innovation through competition and cooperation, and development of green technical innovation can also boost economic drives and efficiency, proving its mediation between industrial agglomeration and green economic efficiency. New energy vehicle industrial agglomeration has spatial overflowing on green economic efficiency, varying among upper-, middle- and down-stream. This paper presents suggestions on enhancing industrial clustering construction to play a role in the long-term mechanism of new energy vehicle industry, boosting green technical innovation system and advancing regional heterogeneity of new energy vehicle.

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    CARBON EMISSION REDUCTION EFFECTS OF DIGITAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT WITH ADJUSTMENT OF HETEROGENEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION

    PAN Haiying, CHEN Ling, REN Jiajia
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (6): 1-14.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230724.001
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (1358KB)(178)       Save
    As global warming is accelerating, China presents “dual carbon” goal as an attempt to transform China ‘s economic development way, which may be powered by digital economy. This paper uses China ‘s 2011 to 2019 provincial panel data to establish a spatial counting model used to study the carbon emission reduction of digital economy and adjustment of heterogeneous environmental regulations. Digital economy strongly depresses carbon emission intensity under 3 types of spatial weight matrix, and casts a negative spatial overflowing due to its diffusion and radiation, constraining the carbon emission in the surrounding areas. Mandatory environmental regulations play an adverse role on its carbon emission reduction of digital economy, while market-stimulating and public-participating environmental regulations work positively. A panel threshold model is established based on digital economic development level and economic growth level as threshold variables to study the threshold effect of digital economy on carbon emission. Digital economy has a dual threshold effect based on its level and sole threshold effect based on economic growth on carbon emission intensity, and can effectively fulfill carbon reduction over threshold values. This paper puts forward suggestions on combining traditional industries with digital technologies to develop economy, applying flexible combined environmental regulations to lead a green development for industries, speeding up construction of green data center, increasing its operating efficiency, appropriately allocating digital economic resources to reach a quality economic development.
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    NON-LINEAR EFFECTS OF GREEN FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT ON CARBON EMISSION FROM PERSPECTIVE OF FINANCIAL ECO-ENVIRONMENT

    PAN Haiying, ZHANG Chen, YAN Xiang
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (6): 15-30.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230726.002
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (1323KB)(266)       Save
    In order to study if a good financial eco-environment as green financial function in carbon emission reduction, this paper uses financial eco-environment and China ‘s 2008 to 2020 provincial panel data to establish a panel threshold model to test its non-linear effect of green financial development on carbon emission. Results show that green financial development can largely depress carbon emission if no externally environmental constraints, bearing phasing features. At its rapid developing stage, green finance plays a better role. Limited by financial eco-environment, dual threshold effect exists in its impacts, it can not fulfill its functions in depressing carbon emission if under the first threshold value, but increasing if above the two threshold values. As economy, finance and governance levels are over the threshold values, green finance development displays a marginal rising role in depressing carbon emission. An abnormal “central collapsing” happens in carbon emission reduction of green financial development at regime and credit cultures. Geographically, financial eco-environment has a sole threshold effect between green financial development and carbon emission in the eastern and central-western. The eastern has an increasing function while the central-western only starts to emerge as financial eco-environmental level over the threshold values. This paper presents theoretical references for fulfilling carbon emission reduction of green finance from financial eco-environmental construction and for reaching dual carbon goal.
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    ALUMINUM RESOURCE DEMAND IN NEXT DECADE UNDER NEW INDUSTRIAL SITUATION 

    CUI Bojing, CHEN Qishen, WANG Kun, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (6): 31-40.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230913.001
    Abstract79)      PDF(pc) (3975KB)(124)       Save

    Rapid growth of new low carbon industries like of new electric vehicles and photovoltaic recently leads to a surging demand for aluminum resource, but production of primary aluminum has high energy consumption and large carbon emission, challenging the global climate changes and dual carbon goal. This paper uses system dynamics simulation model to forecast China ‘s aluminum resource production/consumption in next decade, and quantitatively evaluates its carbon emission potential under normal, policy and ideal scenarios from a perspective of entire life circle bauxite-aluminum oxide-primary aluminum-aluminum products-recycling aluminum, and forecasts the future supply of primary and recycling aluminum. In next decade, aluminum demand will be still fast rising, mainly contributed by the growing new energy vehicles. Transportation will become the largest aluminum consuming sector over construction sector. The premium approach to aluminum carbon reduction is to develop recycling aluminum resource, then to optimize electricity-using structure in electrolytic aluminum.To face a challenging global economic situation, this paper presents suggestions on developing power-saving-environment-protecting primary and recycling metallurgical technologies and methods, increasing development/use and recycling levels of aluminum resource, constructing an effective aluminum resource recycling system, decreasing uncertainty in aluminum resource supply so as to secure China ‘s aluminum resource guaranteeing capacity and to boost a quality development of China ‘s aluminum industry.

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    RE-UNDERSTANDING EXCESSIVE COAL PRODUCING CAPACITY BASED ON MEASUREMENT AND SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF LATENT CLASS RANDOM MARGINALIZATION (LCRM)

    JU Yanping, WANG Xinhua
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (6): 41-52.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230928.001
    Abstract50)      PDF(pc) (1265KB)(35)       Save

    Excessive producing capacity of coal industry is wasting resources, harmful to a green, efficient and safe energy system. Utilization rate of producing capacity is a key indicator to mark the excess of producing capacity, measuring it will be helpful to tell the excess degree of coal producing capacity and its developing trend, which provides references for authorities to make producing capacity policies and for coal producers to make market strategies. China ‘s coal resource is heterogeneously distributing with different burying geology, which determines its regional developing difference. The past measurements ignored its impacts on utilization rate of producing rate. This paper uses LCRMA to measure 2001 to 2017 utilization rate of coal producing capacity in China ‘s 24 provinces, classifies coal provinces into 4 groups, abundant type, moderate type, insufficient type and exhausted type in terms of the intrinsic variance of mining conditions, and applies spatial counting model to study their spatial evolution of utilization rate of producing capacity in these four groups. Utilization rate of coal producing capacity shows a rising-falling trend during the study period, average at 0.82, with excessive producing capacity varying with groups. Production in insufficient type and exhausted type is approaching the producing margin, suggesting a limited room to improve their utilization rate of producing capacity. Utilization rate of producing capacity in moderate type is average at 0.63, meaning an excessive producing capacity. Factors impacting utilization rate of producing capacity vary with groups. Economy works adversely, but positively on groups with abundant resources, advanced technologies and most large coal bases, indicating expanded producing capacity induced by economic growth ignores quality. Utilization rate of producing capacity is sensitive to changes of market demands, a growing demand is favorable for improving utilization rate of producing capacity. Spatialβconditional convergence exists in utilization rate of coal producing capacity, suggesting industrial migration helpful to spatially increase utilization rate of producing capacity, contributing to a diminishing regional difference. This paper presents suggestions on enhancing infrastructural construction and research inputs in western and new producing bases, accelerating quit and consolidation of lagging producing capacity in central, exerting the key “survival of fittest” role of market in coal producing capacity, actively directing human and management resources in insufficient and exhausted groups to abundant and moderate types so as to reach a quality development of coal industry.

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    ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY AND FACTORS OF NODE CITIES ALONG CHINA’S SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT

    CHEN Wenlie, LI Yanli
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (5): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231012.001
    Abstract48)      PDF(pc) (1200KB)(47)       Save
    This paper uses DEA model containing environmental pollution data to measure the environmental efficiency of node cities along China ‘s Silk Road Economic Belt During 2010 to 2020. The results show that ten node cities are low in overall environmental efficiency, largely variable among eastern, central and western, marking a necessity for regional emission reduction and across-regional cooperation boosted by environmentally technical advances.  Environmental efficiency gap in eastern and central node cities is diminishing to the same level.  This paper applies Tobit model to analyze the factors of environmental efficiency, which is promoted by economic scale, international trade and technical advances, little by industrial structure and regional features. This paper presents suggestions on reducing pollution emission and on increasing China ‘s environmental efficiency.
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    TEMPORAL-SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF COUPLING COORDINATION BETWEEN CHINA’S FIRST URBAN MODERNIZATION AND ECOLOGICALIZATION

    Liu Chenyue, Dong Tiandan, Hu Xinyu
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (5): 10-21.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231120.001
    Abstract44)      PDF(pc) (1545KB)(69)       Save

    Aiming at exploring the relation between China ‘s first city ‘s modernization and ecologicalization, this paper, in accordance with the coupling principles of urban modernization and ecologicalization, uses 2008 to 2017 modernization and ecoloigicalization in China ‘s 31 first cities to establish a coupling coordination model which is employed to study their coupling coordination and spatial distribution of modernization sub-system and ecologicalization sub-system. First cities ‘ modernization and ecologicalization level spatially distributes variably, large spatial migrating viscosity, less cities of high ecologicalization level. Cities of middle levels are clustering. High values and middle-to-low values have internal polarization. Distribution of cities with higher levels is of convergence, most concentrating in the eastern and southern. First Cities of high coupling and coordination in modernization and ecologicalization are quite limited, most at high coupling and relatively coordinating stages. Beijing and Guangzhou are in tier 1 core zone with their coupling coordination spatial structure showing 2-classes-mulitple-cores status from south to north. The coupling and coordination of China ‘s first cities ‘ modernization and ecologicalization shows a rising trend in temporal evolution, with coupling raised to high level from bottom level, up to 70.97% in proportion, and with coupling grading to higher from intermediation, up to 87.10% to 77.42%. Its overall coupling level is still higher than coordination.

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    A CASE STUDY ON MIDDLE STREAM CITY CLUSTER IN YANGTZE RIVER:DOES URBAN SPATIAL MORPHOLOGY IMPACT URBAN LAND USE EFFICIENCY?
    XIANG Dongliang, HE Yingsi
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (5): 22-39.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231030.001
    Abstract40)      PDF(pc) (3390KB)(49)       Save
    Study on the impacts of urban spatial morphology on land use efficiency is significant to manage urban spatial morphology and to promote urban land highly efficiently use. This paper uses scenic pattern indicator to measure its sole centrality, fragmentation, irregularity, expansion and concentration of urban spatial morphology in Yangtze Rive middle stream city cluster in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2018, and to analyze the temporal-spatial evolution of urban spatial morphology, and applies random front production function model to estimate the urban land use efficiency, and employs  FGLS model to test stability of original models via GMM model and to discuss the impacting mechanism of urban spatial morphology on urban land use efficiency. Its urban spatial morphology shows sole centrality, diminishing irregularity, increasing fragmentation, expansion and concentration, suggesting a linearly rising land use efficiency, with most median approaching to quartile, to an outstanding convergence. When cities are expanding, advantages of sole centrality of urban spatial morphology will be decreasing, leading to issues like oversized population, limited resources and environmental pollution. Highly fragmentation will result in fragmented scenes, highly polluted water and reduced ecological servicing, unfavorable for urban land use efficiency. Urban internal blocks show continuous but regular shapes, favorable for decreasing traffic network construction costs, and then promoting the spatial externality of urban land use efficiency. Construction land size can boost urban land use efficiency through producing concentrating effect, economic stimulation and increasing producing capacity, increasing urban spatial concentration can promote interaction among lower levels and reduce resource consumption.
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    NETWORK STRUCTURE AND FACTORS OF CHINA’S INDUSTRIAL CARBON EMISSION
    GUAN Wei, WANG Yong, XU Shuting
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (5): 40-49.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20231030.002
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (3227KB)(82)       Save

    Industry is a critical part of economy, and also a major source for carbon emission. This paper uses calibrated gravity model and social network method to analyze China ‘s 2005 to 2019 industrial carbon emission, and applies QAP to explore its factors. The overall network features suggest a rising spatial connection among provinces, who need to collaborate thoroughly toward energy-saving-emission-reducing. Eastern provinces/cities such as Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Tianjin are positioning in the centers of social networks with a more complicated connection, less difficulties in connecting other provinces and controlling more resources, while the central and western provinces are on the contrast. The eastern coastal provinces are at the centers, with their inner connection in the core higher than in the margin, but growing rate lower, suggesting an increasing inner connection inside the marginal areas. QAP regression results show that the five variables, industrialization, technology, energy intensity, industrial structure and energy industry, can promote spatial connection of industrial carbon emission from their variances. This paper presents suggestions on boosting regional cooperation, realizing regional collaboration, accelerating green transformation in terms of social network features and SAP regression.

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    MPACTS OF TECHNICAL INNOVATION ON GREEN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BASED ON ADJUSTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AGGLOMERATION

    YIN Qingmin, JIN Wanting
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230309.002
    Abstract209)      PDF(pc) (1284KB)(206)       Save

    Study of impacts of technical innovation on green total factor productivity from perspective of industrial agglomeration is of strategic significance to promoting a coordinated development between technical innovation and green economy in China and keeping same pace between industrial development and environmental protection. This paper, based on 2008 to 2019 provincial panel data of Chinese provinces (cities), uses SBM model and GML indicator to estimate the dynamic changes of green total factor productivity in 30 Chinese provinces (cities), and applies threshold regression model and adjusting effect model to discuss the threshold and adjusting effects of financing & manufacturing conglomeration on technical innovative achievements and green total factor productivity. Results show a strikingly positive coefficient of technical innovative achievements on green total factor productivity, a positive adjusting and sole threshold effect of financing conglomeration on technical innovative achievement and green total factor productivity, and a negative adjusting of manufacturing conglomeration, and an outstandingly adjusting of local public budget, residents usable income per capita and foreign investment on green total factor productivity. This paper presents suggestions on focusing on their match between technical innovative achievements and green economic development, enabling digital financing to break the spatial barrier of financing, converting manufacturing to a quality conglomeration, properly allocating financing resources in environmental protection sector, and boosting supervision of foreign investment in environmental protection.

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    Governmental allowance, enterprise ESG and green innovation
    JIANG Rongmei, CHEN Guisong
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 90-102.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221024.003
    Abstract681)      PDF(pc) (1240KB)(445)       Save

    In order to construct a green innovative system oriented by governments, operated by enterprises and public involved, all levels of governments issue series of supportive policies via governmental allowance in powering green innovation. It has been an important research topic to study the impacts of governmental allowance on green innovation, and to maintain it as a long-term drive. This paper clarifies the relation between governmental allowance and green innovation, selects 864 Chinese A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2016 to 2020 as the research sample, uses “resources-ability-action” model to incorporate the enterprise’s ESG performance into the analysis framework of governmental allowance and green innovation, explore the impacting mechanism of governmental allowance on green innovation from the perspective of enterprise’s ESG performance, verified by fixed effect model. The results show that governmental allowance have a significant positive impact on green innovation and can directly promote the green innovation of enterprises. Governmental allowance also plays an outstandingly positive role on enterprises’ ESG, encouraging enterprises to care about environmental protection,  to fulfil social responsibilities and to increase governance performance. Enterprises’ ESG plays a partial intermediary role between governmental allowance and green innovation. Governmental allowance can impact enterprises’ green innovation through their ESG in environmental responsibilities and governance performance, but enterprises’ social responsibilities do not play a media role between governmental allowance and green innovation. Compared with a lower ESG level, governmental allowance plays a stronger role in enterprises’ green innovation under a higher ESG level. Governments shall manoeuver allowance to reach a high-quality green development, which requires governments enlarge allowance in an appropriate way to improve ESG. Use of such allowance shall be under strict supervision through a sound ESG evaluation system. Governmental allowance is suggested to be differentiated based on enterprises’ ESG levels to increase the use efficiency of governmental allowance.

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    COUPLING COORDINATION BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL GREEN LOW-CARBON TRANSFORMATION AND QUALITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN YELLOW RIVER STREAM
    TIAN Ze, XIAO Lingying, LIANG Wei, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 14-26.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220630.001
    Abstract164)      PDF(pc) (1406KB)(110)       Save
    Yellow River stream is entering a period of ecological protection and quality development. Study on the coupling coordination between its industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development is of significance in reaching the goals. This paper applies temporal-spatial range entropy weights to estimate Yellow River stream’s 2009 to 2019 industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development levels, and uses calibrated coupling coordination model to measure their coordination, and employs Dagum Gini coefficient and decomposition to study the regional variance between industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development with Kernel density estimation dispatched to study its dynamics. Its industrial green low-carbon transformation level is at 0.449, and quality economic development level at 0.490, with annual growth rate at 5.84% and 7.1%, respectively, overall in a upgrading trend, but industrial green low-carbon transformation is notably behind its quality economic development. Their coordination level is low at 0.55, with annual growth rate at 3.2%, 0.629 in 2019, a turning point from off coordinated to preliminarily coordinated. The both are not at the same pace in coordination with coupling coordination showing a spatial distribution of “high-in-lower stream, middle-in-middle stream and low-in-upper stream”, 0.59, 0.561 and 0.529, respectively. Their overall spatial variance is diminishing, primarily contributed by their regional variance with a contributing value at 46.97%, secondarily by the internal variance with a contributing value at 33.54%. This paper presents suggestions on constructing regional green low-carbon industrial system, exploring differentiated policies and boosting trans-stream cooperation.
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    IMPACTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DISCLOSURE ON RESOURCE COMPANIES' INNOVATION VIEWING FROM EXTERNAL PRESSURE
    NIE Zhiping, WANG Yiwen
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 79-96.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220816.001
    Abstract160)      PDF(pc) (1155KB)(120)       Save
    Study of either retroaction effect or crowding out effect between environmental information disclosure and companies’ innovation is key to reaching a win-win between environmental protection and economic development. This paper uses legality, reputation, signal transmission and stakeholder theories to study the impacts of environmental information disclosure on resource companies’ innovation. Results show environmental information disclosure can notably increases resource companies’ innovative level, hard disclosure works more compared with soft disclosure. Negative media supervision will offset companies’ reputation and financing advantage brought from environmental information disclosure to some extent, then constraining resource companies’ innovative capacity, but other media will not promote their innovative levels upon environmental information disclosure. Governmental supervision and analysts’ attention will not positively adjust the relation between environmental information disclosure and innovative level of resource companies, but analyst’s attention will work if resource companies discloses hard environmental information, which is a good practice for green innovative transformation. Governments need to further optimize environmental information disclosure system in a unified standard, and to fulfill media supervision and analysts’ social supervision.
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    PVAR STUDY ON DYNAMIC RELATION AMONG R & D INPUTS, INNOVATIVE PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH BASED ON SHANDONG'S 16 PREFECTURES' PANEL DATA
    CHENG Ming, YAN Feng, DU Tingxia, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 97-108.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220829.001
    Abstract129)      PDF(pc) (1821KB)(110)       Save

    As economic globalization develops, R&D plays a key role in increasing innovative capacities and booting economic structural optimization. Study on dynamic relation among R&D inputs, innovative performance and economic growth can give us a deep understanding on regional innovative transformation, and provide references on innovative drives changes. This paper uses Shandong’s 2012 to 2020 16 prefectures’ panel data to establish PVAR model, and applies pulse response function and deviation to their interaction among R&D inputs, innovative performance and economic growth, and their variance in Shandong’s three economic zones. R&D inputs show one stage lagging behind economic growth, but faster in capital and Jiandong economic zones with their contributing rates up to 40.1% and 39.8%, respectively. Economic growth plays an adverse role against innovative performance, more in Jiaodong economic zone. Innovative performance promotes economic growth, with a contributing rate up to 85.9% in southern Shandong economic zone. R&D inputs have a low contributing rate to innovative performance, lagging 1 to stages in Jiaodong economic zone. Innovative performance promotes R&D inputs in a lagging 1 stage, but faster in capital and Jiaodong economic zones, with a contributing rate up to 80.4% in southern Shandong economic zone. The results generally show an interactive promotion among economic growth, R&D inputs and innovative performance. In capital economic zone, economic growth and R&D inputs have promoting roles on innovative performance, with a low conversion capacity from economic growth and R&D inputs to innovative performance. In Jiaodong economic zone, an outstanding promoting role exists both between economic growth and R&D inputs, and between R&D inputs and innovative performance, but low in the conversion rate between innovative outputs and economic growth. In southern Shandong economic zone, economic growth and R&D inputs have promotion on innovative performance, but insufficient beneficial interaction among the three.

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    IMPACTS OF STRATEGIC VARIANCE ON ADVANCED MANUFACTURING RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS BASED ON MEDIATION OF TRADE CREDIT FINANCING
    NIE Zhiping, FAN Xiaowen
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 122-131.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220614.001
    Abstract126)      PDF(pc) (1114KB)(88)       Save

    Advanced manufacturing plays a key part in China’s quality economic growth, mainly driven by innovation, which needs pay attention on how it works. This paper uses 2013 to 2019 A stock-listed advanced manufacturing companies data to study the tie between their strategic variance and innovation investments. Their research & development (R&D) investments vary largely with the strategies; the bigger the strategic variance, the lower the R&D investment. Trade credit financing is one of the mediating paths to impacting their R&D investments, suggesting strategic variance will decrease their R&D investments through constraining the advanced manufacturing companies’ trade credit financing size, outstandingly on those with more constraints. Results are still robust after verified by tool variable and adjusted strategic variances. This conclusion helps China’s advanced manufacturing select appropriate strategic position and advance technical innovation, and verifies the importance of trade credit financing on advanced manufacturing’s technical innovations. Advanced manufacturing companies need to consider the possible economic aftermath if they are off the conventional strategies, largely impacting their R&D investments. Most advanced manufacturing companies are suggested selecting a following strategy if they are not strong in innovative resources; their pursuit of eccentric strategy may be harmful to their technical innovation. This paper gives suggestions for advanced manufacturing companies on treasuring their credits, intensifying the ties with customers and suppliers, which may relieve their financing constraints due to strategic variance, favorable for their technical innovations.

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    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENT INTENSITY AND PERFORMANCE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC COMPANIES ADJUSTED BY FINANCIAL LEVERAGE AND EQUITY NATURE
    XIAO Yu, GONG Guiying
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (4): 21-29.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220307.001
    Abstract225)      PDF(pc) (1255KB)(245)       Save
    Technical innovation theory is used to study the relation between research & development innovation and performance of Chinese photovoltaic companies, and financial leverage is incorporated into model to further study variances between state-owned and private companies, providing decision-making references for photovoltaic companies to make R&D investment strategies and to make performance plans. This paper, based on 100 stock A-listed photovoltaic companies' panel data from 2016 to 2020, uses Hausman test and random effect to study the adjustment of financial leverage and equity nature with R&D input intensity as independent variable and companies' performance as dependent variable. The results show an upside-down “U-shaped” relation between them, increase of input can promote companies' performance when input is insufficient; however, this promotion may become adverse as R&D input increases. Financial leverage plays a negative role that their relation can be weakened as financial leverage coefficient rises. The upside-down “U-shaped” relation exists both in state-owned and private companies, outstandingly in the latter. An appropriate R&D input intensity largely promotes photovoltaic companies'performances, subject to their capital allocation. Photovoltaic companies should consider their R&D input according to their overall strategy, which makes appropriate R&D input strategy from input & output and capital operation. Private companies complying with marketized operation have a well stimulating mechanism. Stateowned companies' performance can be promoted if private equity is adopted appropriately. 
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    GREEN DEVELOPMENT EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT AND FACTORS OF YANGTZE RIVER ECONOMIC ZONE UNDER PERSPECTIVE OF CARBON EMISSION
    MA Jun, WU Linling, LU Yuqin
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (3): 71-80.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220527.010
    Abstract208)      PDF(pc) (2844KB)(442)       Save
    Green development, an effective approach to coordinating ecological protection, promoting economic development and reducing carbon emission, is becoming an objective of global sustainable development and human's development focus. China's economy is entering a quality developing status under a rising resources and environmental pressures. Cities are centers for modern economic growth that makes green efficiency an unavoidable way in urban transformation. This paper uses super-efficiency undesired SBM model  to measure the green development  efficiency of 11 Yangtze River economic zone provinces (cities) and their temporal-spatial evolution, compared with their green developing efficiencies without consideration of carbon emission, and applies decision making trail and evaluation laboratory technology (DEMATEL) to identify the key factors. Carbon emission in Yangtze River economic zone has been rising over years, impacting the green developing efficiency. The green developing efficiency has fallen largely in the down-stream of Yangtze River under the environmental constraints. Yangtze River economic zone shows a rising green developing efficiency, varying with regions, down-, upper- and middle-stream downwards. Factors such as industrial structure, research input, openness, environmental regulations and vegetation coverage rate positively play an outstanding role in green developing efficiency under perspective of carbon emission. A low green developing efficiency lies in over resource consumption and over pollution emission. Environmentally, carbon emission is becoming a hard point for increasing green developing efficiency amid urban development. This paper presents suggestions on improving ecological environment and reaching carbon neutralization to ensure a higher resource utilization and a stronger environmental protection, helpful in building Yangtze River delta as a green integrated developing demonstration. 
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    TEMPORAL-SPATIAL EVOLUTION AND FACTORS OF REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL SECURITY BASED ON DPSIR-TOPSIS MODEL
    LÜ Tiangui, KONG Anni, WANG Li
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (2): 30-41.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210910.001
    Abstract255)      PDF(pc) (12048KB)(215)       Save
    Study of temporal-spatial evolution and factors of regional ecological security can provide references in constructing regional ecological security pattern. This paper, based on a case study on Jiangxi province as a demonstrating ecological cultural area, uses DPSIR model to establish an evaluation index system of ecological security, and applies improved TOPSIS to study the temporal-spatial evolution of Jiangxi's 2006 to 2018 ecological security with obstacle model used for factors. Coupling coordination model is employed to analyze their connection between two sub-systems of ecological security system with optimized path presented. Jiangxi's ecological security level is generally rising from 0.436 in 2006 to 0.464 in 2018 by a yearly rate at 0.002 2, but with gaps in comprehensive compactness and hierarchy among cities. Its response, driving forces and factors sub-systems are climbing with driving forces at same pace with temporal sequence, a falling pressure and status sub-systems. Any two sub-systems have a coupling degree over 0.97, suggesting a high coordination and a well coupling degree. Ecological security hierarchy varies largely among cities, most at critical security levels (III), with gap to the general security level (IV), and long time to the security level (V). Jiangxi's ecological security level is jointly confined by scientific expense, per capita water resource, regional GDP, urbanization rate, green and square area, waste water & gas processing capacity, fixed asset investment proportion and per capita GDP. This paper presents approaches to regional ecological security level on boosting policies response, improving production performance, pushing regional industrial optimization and intensifying eco-environmental protection. 
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    ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOUTH-WATER-NORTH-SHIFT PHASE I WATER SOURCE BASED ON AHP-CRITIC WEIGHT-VARIABLE MATTER-ELEMENT EXTENSION MODEL
    SHEN Juqin, WANG Nannan , SUN Fuhua , et al
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (2): 76-85.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210622.002
    Abstract127)      PDF(pc) (9780KB)(193)       Save
    Ecological compensation performance evaluation is a key to determination of ecological compensation standard and to optimization of ecological compensation mechanism. This paper, aiming at evaluating ecological compensation performance of south-water-north-shift phase I water source, and based on the ecological compensation capital standard, provides references for improving ecological compensation mechanism. This paper uses APH-CRITIC weight-variable matter-element extension model by establishing evaluation index system of water resource ecological compensation, and studies dynamically its performance through ecological compensation standard of water source on which costs method, ecological servicing values, water source proportion coefficient, water supply coefficient, and policy importance coefficient. The typical variable value of performance evaluation level of south-water-north-shift phase I water source is 3.699 34, with standard range of ecological compensation capital [9 693.00, 14 559.75 (10 k RMB)], of which [2 011.50, 3 368.25] distributed to Yangzhou, [2 787.75, 3 327.75] to Shuqian, [3 732.75, 5 157.00] to Huaian and [1 161.00, 2 706.75] to Xuzhou. The performance level for water source is rated at good+, suggesting a good environmental protection in water source. The standard range of ecological compensation capital for water source is RMB97 to 146 million, of which Huaian receives the most, Xuzhou receives the least. Input of ecological compensation capital improves the evaluation indexes with a better performance. Ecological compensation in water source will boost eco-environmental protection, economic growth and livelihood, and further practices the concept of "green-water-green-mountain as gold-mountain-silver-mountain" to reach a harmonious development of human and nature.
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    REGIONAL DIFFERENCE OF IMPACTS OF INDUSTRIAL AGGLOMERATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL EFFICIENCY BASED ON SPATIAL METERING MODEL
    ZHENG Xiaoqiang, PU Yangzhu
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (2): 97-107.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211213.001
    Abstract192)      PDF(pc) (10526KB)(123)       Save
    Improving environmental efficiency is a key to China's quality and sustainable development of economy and environment. This paper, based on China's 30 provinces during 2006 to 2017, uses Undesirable-SBM model and HHI to measure their environmental efficiencies and industrial agglomeration from energy consumption structures, urbanization and technical levels. Results suggest that China's environmental efficiencies are generally low, varying in the eastern, central and western, highest in the eastern and lowest in the western, consistent with their industrial agglomeration levels. Central China is below the average in industrial agglomeration. Environmental efficiencies and related variables passes the dual spatial auto-correlation tests, suggesting an outstanding spatial overflowing of environmental efficiency on industrial agglomeration level, energy consumption structure, urbanization level and technical level. Impacts of industrial agglomeration on environmental efficiency vary with regions; high-limited effect emerging in the eastern that higher industrial agglomeration will impede its environmental efficiency, positive in central and western that higher industrial agglomeration will improve their environmental efficiencies, because the 2nd industry has a larger proportion and there are vast energy extensive industries, industrial agglomeration deceases the trading and transporting costs, leaving companies capital in handling pollution, and also brings expansion leading to energy saving effect. Optimizing energy consumption structure exerts a positive spatial overflowing on environmental efficiency through changing the one-time energy consumption thus reducing the highly-energy-consuming industries. Impacts of technical level on environmental efficiency vary with regions, obviously positively in eastern, but not in central and western. This paper presents policy suggestions that appropriately technical innovation boost environmental efficiency, aiming at providing references for China's quality economic development.
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    IMPACTING MECHANISM OF CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES' SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES ON VALUES BASED ON ADJUSTMENT OF REDUNDANT RESOURCE
    SHU Huan, XU Yiyin
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (2): 143-154.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211129.001
    Abstract181)      PDF(pc) (11184KB)(69)       Save
    This paper, based on China's 266  listed construction companies from 2014 to 2018, uses F test and Hausman test to determine panel data model from new classic economic views and industrial organized views, which is employed to further analyze the connection between construction companies' social responsibilities and short- & long-term values. Companies' redundant resources, tangible or intangible, are divided into unabsorbed and absorbed resources, which plays adjustment in companies' social responsibilities and long- & short-term values. Results show that construction companies' performance of social responsibilities is not related to its short-term values, but positively to its long-term values, determined by their heterogenous resources, which may bring competitiveness for companies if any resources, combined with companies' development, are turned into heterogenous resources before they work for strategy and performances. Unabsorbed redundant resources positively adjust companies' social responsibilities, long- & short-term values due to their high fluidity supporting companies' operations, but absorbed resources do not work due to their low fluidity and high time cost if turned into unabsorbed resources. Resources that need be effectively classified can improve companies' performance. Companies' strategy of development and values determines their competitiveness. Conduction of strategy relies upon their unrepeatable resources. China's construction companies' social responsibilities need a systematic strategic framework integrating their social responsibilities into operations. This paper presents references for construction companies' performance of social responsibilities and use of redundant resources.
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    MULTI-SCALE RESEARCH ON COUPLING COORDINATED DEVELOPMENT OF URBANIZATION AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE MIDDLE REACH OF YANGTZE RIVER
    WU Jiao, LIU Run, HUANG Min
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (1): 73-85.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211221.008
    Abstract119)      PDF(pc) (8191KB)(271)       Save
    The middle reach area of the Yangtze River is the transmission area for development of eastern, central and western China. It is also a key area in promoting new urbanization. Research on its coupling coordinated development of urbanization and ecological environment can provide references for the high-quality development of new urbanization in the middle reach of the Yangtze River. This paper establishes an evaluation index system of urbanization and ecological environment, and uses coupling coordinated model to study its temporal-spatial pattern of coupling coordination between urbanization and ecology in the middle reach of the Yangtze River in 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2017 at the scales of the entire middle reach of the Yangtze River, among city clusters, internal and external city clusters and citywide. GeoDa is used to test the overall and local auto-correlation. The results show a growing urbanization and ecological environmental level with coupling degree at antagonistic stage and coordination degree in the transition from preliminary imbalance to preliminary coordination. The overall coordinated degree of middle reach of the Yangtze River is 0.53. Urbanization is continuously rising among the four city clusters, with a fluctuated ecological environmental level. All city clusters are at a preliminary coordination in 2017, except Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster whose coordination reaches 0.6, a medium coordination. Both internal and external coordination of city clusters are from 0.57 to 0.62, which is a small gap. Spatial difference exists in coordination and coupling of city wide urbanization and ecological environment, with central cities being of prior-developing advantages. The rising coordination is mainly contributed by state supportive policies, industrial transformation, and local development. Spatial difference of coordination is mainly concentrated in Anhui and Hubei. High-high concentrating area is the eastern Jiang-Huai city cluster, and low-low is almost none. This paper concludes that the coupling coordinated development of urbanization and ecological environment in middle reach of the Yangtze River is growing but relatively low, with regional gaps. There is still a long way to realize the high-quality development.
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    RESEARCH ON EVALUATION AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HIGH-QUALITY DEVELOPMENT IN 9 PROVINCES OF THE YELLOW RIVER BASIN FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF NEW DEVELOPMENT CONCEPTS 
    MA Rui
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (1): 160-171.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211227.002
    Abstract155)      PDF(pc) (1454KB)(225)       Save
    he high-quality development of the Yellow River Basin has become an important national strategy. This paper measures their developing indexes of 9 provinces in the basin (Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Henan, Shandong) on five aspects including innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing,analyzes their spatial correlation, determines their developing trend, which is a precondition and offers references for major decision-making for high-quality development in the Yellow River Basin. This paper based on the "new development concept" as the theoretical framework, selects the five indexes of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing in 9 provinces of the Yellow River Basin from 2016 to 2018, and uses the entropy weight method to calculate their comprehensive indexes and analyzes their high-quality development of 9 provinces. On this basis, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method is used to measure the spatial correlation of development in the five aspects of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing in 9 provinces of the Yellow River Basin. The results show that from a vertical perspective, most provinces are rising in innovative, green and opening development, but declining in coordinated and sharing development. From a horizontal perspective, Shandong is of relative preponderance in innovative developing comprehensive index, reaching the maximum in 2018 over the past three years in 9 provinces, and of absolute preponderance in openness development comprehensive index, seating on top over the past three years.Sichuan is of relative preponderance in coordinated development comprehensive index, reaching the acme in 2018 over the past three years among the 9 provinces, and of absolute preponderance in sharing development comprehensive index, seating on top over the past three years.Qinghai is absolute preponderance in green development comprehensive index, staying on the top in three consecutive years among the 9 provinces. Viewing spatial correlation, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia show low-low agglomerating in innovative development in 2018. Inner Mongolia, Sichuan, Qinghai and Ningxia show high-high agglomerating in green development from 2017 to 2018. Through the research,this paper concludes that the 9 provinces have deficiencies in coordination and sharing against a high-quality development, which can be overcome through supportive policies, boosting inputs and precisely approaches. In addition,the upper-stream of Yellow River provinces display a strong spatial correlation in innovative and green development, their collaboration is key to high-quality development in the upper-stream. 
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    THEORY AND RESEARCH ADVANCES IN WHOLE INDUSTRIAL CHAIN OF STRATEGIC MINERAL RESOURCES
    AN Haizhong, LI Huajiao
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (1): 8-14.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211221.007
    Abstract971)      PDF(pc) (1194KB)(1083)       Save
    The world enters a new period of the fourth industrial revolution and the sixth technical revolution. The emerging new industries stimulate the demands of such mineral resources as lithium, cobalt, nickel and rare earth elements. To secure safe and sustainable development of strategic new industries, the major nations and economic units boost a guarantee of their strategic and key minerals, and issue a catalogue of strategic and key minerals appropriate for their situation. Mineral resources security refers to not only up-stream supply security, but also processing and transportation security. This paper, based on the latest policies and catalogues of China, USA, Europe and Japan, gives a summary from three aspects, namely the whole industrial chain definition of strategic mineral resources, research advances and research challenges. It also presents four frontier subjects for researching industrial chain of strategic mineral resources: whole industrial chain system margin and new content of resources security viewing from whole industrial chain, the complicated system construction of "trade-production-circulation" whole industrial chain, approaches to sustainable development of whole industrial chain of mineral resources with carbon peak and carbon neutrality objectives, and interactive mechanism among innovative chain, value chain, industrial chain, supply chain and capital chain.
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    CARBON SINK POTENTIAL OF BEIJING'S FOREST UNDER CARBON PEAK AND CARBON NEUTRALITY
    ZHANG Ying, LI Xiaoge
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (1): 15-25.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210907.001
    Abstract689)      PDF(pc) (1901KB)(406)       Save
    This paper estimates the carbon stock and values of Beijing's forest resources, and forecasts forest carbon stock and carbon sink potential, and provides references for Beijing national forest city construction, realization of carbon neutrality goal. This paper, based on Beijing's forest survey data from 1973 to 2018, uses forest volume method to estimate the total carbon storage and changes of Beijing's forest resources, measures the carbon storage and value of different forest types, and applies GM(1, 1) grey model and power function model to forecast the carbon sink potential of Beijing's forest resources. Beijing's unit forest stock volume has been 29.98 m3/hm2 over four decades, far below the nation's average of 73.56 m3/hm2, leaving room for increment. The total carbon storage increases to 34 765.1 kt from 5 718.0 kt with a yearly rising rate 691.6 kt, of which forest carbon storage increases to 11 577.5 kt from 1 018.8 kt with a yearly rising rate 251.4 kt. Forest carbon  density increases to 16.12 t/hm2 from 5.09 t/hm2, far below the nation's average of 41.50 t/hm2. Forest carbon storage value increases to 1 430.886 1 million Yuan in 2018 from 67.066 6 million Yuan in 1976 by a yearly rising rate 32.471 9 million Yuan, amounting to a compound yearly rising rate 7.56%, of which artificial forest carbon storage value has a yearly rising rate 13.70%. Beijing's forest carbon storage is forecasted to be 22 556.9 kt by GM(1, 1), carbon sink to 915 kt/a from 2018 to 2030, forest stock volume to 47 488.3 km3 in 2030. Forest storage is forecasted to be 29 318.2 kt in 2030 by power function,  carbon sink to 1 478.4 kt/a from 2018 to 2030, forest stock volume to 61 722.6 km3 in 2030, and forest coverage to 61.77%.  Forecast results indicate that Beijing's forest city planning objectives, carbon peak and carbon neutrality can be realized. This paper concludes that Beijing's forest storage and value have increased since 1976 based on forest biomass and stock volume changes without considering economic and political factors. Beijing has a big forest carbon sink potential which may largely contribute to Beijing's carbon peak and carbon neutrality.
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     EVOLUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZINC ORE INTERNATIONAL TRADE PATTERN BASED ON COMPLEX NETWORK
    LIANG Ziyi, DONG Zhiliang
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (4): 63-69.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210601.002
    Abstract187)         PDF(mobile) (2523KB)(9)    Save

    Zinc ore international trade pattern is changing continuously as international trade surges. In an attempt to provide references in making zinc trading policies, this paper uses international zinc ore trading data from 2010 to 2019 to establish a directional weighted zinc trade complex network with countries as nodes and trade links between countries as edges, with which its evolution is analyzed and key and pivot nations are identified. The results show that zinc trade size is escalating. The number of countries participating in trade is increasing, and trade tends to be globalized. China's zinc ore trading size has been ranked number one for many years and China is in the center of trading. It suggests China should enhance cooperation with Australia and Peru in import and boost metallurgical technologies so as to guarantee its zinc ore supply.

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    System Margin and Path Research of Ecological Product Value Implementation
    ZHOU Wei, SHEN Lei, ZHONG Shuai, et al
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (4): 94-104.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210622.001
    Abstract284)         PDF(mobile) (1254KB)(16)    Save

    Realizing ecological product values is a key part of China’s ecological civilization construction, and a necessity for China to make policy and manage natural resources. This paper gives definition of conceptual content of ecological products according to realization need of ecological product values, and establishes a system margin of ecological product values, in which the basis of realizing ecological product values is discussed from ecological system, ecological product value constitution, ecological product accounting and balancing. Life circle rule is used to build the approaches to ecological product values, including unit processes of ecological system, ecological products, accounting, balancing, producing, trading and consuming. Alternative approaches involve three key steps, producing, trading and consuming. Selection of them is actually to define the trading ways and to turn products into consumer goods. The core in producing stage is supplier and supplying means of productive elements, the key in consuming stage is payer who is related to consuming category of ecological products. Analysis and summary of approaches to different ecological systems and realization of ecological product values provides references for the innovation of realizing ecological product values.

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    TEMPORAL-SPATIAL EVOLUTION OF COUPLING COORDINATED DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN REGIONAL ECONOMY AND ECOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT BASED ON A CASE STUDY ON HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE
    WANG Yi, HAO Xiuhui, YAO Lixia
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (5): 21-30.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211014.005
    Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (2582KB)(62)       Save
    A coupling coordinated development between regional economy and ecological environment ensures a quality regional development. This paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation index system of coupling coordinated development between regional economy and ecological environment in Heilongjiang province, and measures their comprehensive evaluation indexes of regional economy and ecological environment in Heilongjiang and its cities during 2007 to 2018 by using coupling coordinated model. A panel data regression model is constructed with coupling coordinated degree as other explanatory variable and related indicators in comprehensive evaluation index system as explanatory variables. Results show a windingly rising trend between Heilongjiang's regional economy and ecological environment, their coupling coordinated degree is of heterogeneity. Regression coefficient of economy is higher than that of ecological environment. Positive indicators boost the coupling coordinated degree, which exceeds the impacts of negative indicators. This paper present suggestions on improving mandatory environmental regulation, enacting inspiring environmental regulation, focusing their linkage effect and planning economic structure so as to reach a coordinated development between ecological environment and industrial structural upgrade.
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    AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY AND ITS FACTORS OF YANGTZE RIVER ECONOMIC ZONE
    JIANG Xiangcheng, ZHAO Xin
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (5): 41-50.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20211014.003
    Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (2139KB)(66)       Save
    Construction of agricultural ecological civilization depends upon improvement of ecological efficiency. This paper, based on 2008-2018 panel data of 11 provinces (cities) in the Yangtze River economic zone, uses SBM-Undesirable model global Moran’s Index to analyze the temporal-spatial evolution of agricultural ecological efficiency of Yangtze River economic zone and applies panel regression to study its factors. During the study period, the average agricultural ecological efficiency is less than 1, below the effective value, 0。9329, 0.7830 and 0.9624 in the upper-, middle- and down-stream, respectively, showing a downgrade trend from upper-, down- to middle-stream. Gap exists among provinces (cites). The global Moran's Index shows a weakly concentrating tendency, displaying positive, negative and positive concentrating effects over time. The agricultural ecological efficiency showing a positive U-shaped relation with economic development is boosted by farming structure, research and development investment, agricultural intensification and financial supports, but offset by the urbanization.
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    FDI QUALITY, ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATION AND INDUSTRIAL 
    STRUCTURE UPGRADING BASED ON 2008-2018 PANEL DATA 
    OF YANGTZE RIVER ECONOMIC ZONE
     
    YANG Kaijun, CAI Jiajin
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (3): 12-20.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210201.002
    Abstract150)         PDF(mobile) (1282KB)(12)    Save
    Introduction of FDI is turning to quality from quantity as Yangtze river economic zone is undergoing a green transformation. This paper, based on 2008 to 2018 panel data of 11 provinces / cities in Yangtze river economic zone, uses dynamic panel model and panel threshold model to study their relation among FDI quality, environmental regulation and industrial structure upgrading. FDI quality and environmental regulation largely promote the industrial structure upgrading, varying among the down-, 
    middle- and up-stream of the Yangtze river economic zone that the down-stream attracts the quality FDI more, the middle-stream applies a more flexible environmental regulation, and the up-stream is loosing talents. FDI quality and environmental regulation have single thresholds, pollution industries will be migrated to the Yangtze river economic zone when environmental regulation is lower than the threshold value, resulting in pollution shelter effect. Increment of FDI will lead to locked low-end industries if FDI quality is less than the threshold value.
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    A CASE STUDY ON YANGZHOU CITY: WATER SOURCE ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION BASED ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICING VALUES 
    SUN Fuhua, XIONG Jiali, GAO Xin, et al
    Resources & Industries    2021, 23 (3): 38-49.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20210226.001
    Abstract161)         PDF(mobile) (2555KB)(15)    Save

    Ecological compensation is a vital mechanism in balancing regional economy and eco\|environmental protection. How to determine compensation standard and how to distribute compensation fund is a hard point. This paper uses eco\|system servicing value, GIS and remote sensing to analyze the changes in land use types and eco-system servicing values of Yangzhou in 2010, 2015 and 2018, which is applied to determine the upper limit of ecological compensation of water receiving area. ECPS is adopted to distribute the compensation fund. Yangzhou's land use structure has changed a lot during 2010 to 2018, with eco-system servicing value dropping to RMB 46 799 million from 55 359 million, 90.38% from water use eco\|system. Water receiving areas shall pay 2 091 million compensation, but the upper payment limit is 1 359 million, indicating an adjusted value by secondary water servicing at 80.02%, core compensation. Compensation funds are to be distributed to Gaoyou (1 013 million), Baoying (508 million), Hanjiang (281 million), Jiangdu (179 million), Yizheng (93 million) and Guangling (17 million) in an decreasing order. This paper presents suggestions on improving water source ecological compensation mechanism from determining compensation targets, setting up supervision and forming multiple compensation.

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