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    Governmental allowance, enterprise ESG and green innovation
    JIANG Rongmei, CHEN Guisong
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 90-102.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221024.003
    Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (1240KB)(125)       Save

    In order to construct a green innovative system oriented by governments, operated by enterprises and public involved, all levels of governments issue series of supportive policies via governmental allowance in powering green innovation. It has been an important research topic to study the impacts of governmental allowance on green innovation, and to maintain it as a long-term drive. This paper clarifies the relation between governmental allowance and green innovation, selects 864 Chinese A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2016 to 2020 as the research sample, uses “resources-ability-action” model to incorporate the enterprise’s ESG performance into the analysis framework of governmental allowance and green innovation, explore the impacting mechanism of governmental allowance on green innovation from the perspective of enterprise’s ESG performance, verified by fixed effect model. The results show that governmental allowance have a significant positive impact on green innovation and can directly promote the green innovation of enterprises. Governmental allowance also plays an outstandingly positive role on enterprises’ ESG, encouraging enterprises to care about environmental protection,  to fulfil social responsibilities and to increase governance performance. Enterprises’ ESG plays a partial intermediary role between governmental allowance and green innovation. Governmental allowance can impact enterprises’ green innovation through their ESG in environmental responsibilities and governance performance, but enterprises’ social responsibilities do not play a media role between governmental allowance and green innovation. Compared with a lower ESG level, governmental allowance plays a stronger role in enterprises’ green innovation under a higher ESG level. Governments shall manoeuver allowance to reach a high-quality green development, which requires governments enlarge allowance in an appropriate way to improve ESG. Use of such allowance shall be under strict supervision through a sound ESG evaluation system. Governmental allowance is suggested to be differentiated based on enterprises’ ESG levels to increase the use efficiency of governmental allowance.

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    ZHU Zhiming, GUI Mengting, LI Hongyan
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 1-13.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220715.001
    Abstract190)      PDF(pc) (1940KB)(127)       Save

    This paper estimates Jiangsu's carbon emission and absorption and forecasts its future carbon balance potential, offering reference for China to reach strategic objectives of 2030 carbon peak, and 2060 carbon neutralization (dual carbon objectives), and to materialize ecological civilization construction. This paper establishes an indictor system to forecast Jiangsu's carbon balance potential and improves STIRPAT model based on 1996 to 2019 carbon emission data and LMDI factors, which is used to forecast Jiangsu’s 2020 to 2060 carbon emission under 9 scenarios. GM(1, 1) is employed to forecast Jiangsu’s future carbon absorption and 2004 to 2060 carbon balance evolution. Results show that Jiangsu’s carbon emission grows fast, most contributed by population, income and energy structure, but offset by energy intensity and carbon emission intensity. According to the forecasted results of STIRPAT model, nine scenarios can be classified as high carbonhigh growth, intermediate carbonintermediate growth and low carbonlow growth in terms of cabon peak and time. The premium scenario 3 in the lowcarbonlow growth can reach carbon peak as early as in 2029, at 330 0386 kt carbon dioxide, and decline to 242 7419 kt in 2060. Jiangsu’s carbon absorption is forecasted to growth slowly, up to 30 mt carbon dioxide in 2053, and 30955 84 mt in 2060. Jiangsu will face a lagging carbon balance, with a peak deficit up to 302860 3 mt carbon dioxide in 2029, falling to 211786 0 mt in 2060. Carbon balance pressure index will fall to 784 in 2060 from 1216 in 2025, suggesting a big pressure over Jiangsu. Jiangsu has a limited ecological carbon absorption capacity, facing a big challenge on carbon balance even according to the premium scenario 3. This paper presents suggestions on adjusting energy high carbon structure, boosting green technical innovation, decreasing carbon emission, increasing green land area, protecting natural environment, raising carbon absorption capacity, developing green carbon reduction and technical carbonfixing, diminishing carbon deficit and mitigating cabon balance pressure from carbon emission, carbon absorption and carbon balance, which helps China reach 2060 carbon neutralization.

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    DU Yan, HU Xinyang
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 19-28.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221013.002
    Abstract144)      PDF(pc) (2230KB)(107)       Save
    This paper uses system dynamics model to interactively simulate China's carbon emission evolution trend of energy consumption during 2020 to 2050 under three scenarios. Comprehensive control scenario is set at the benchmark to study the impacts of economic,population and energy changes on gross carbon emission, and to discuss the premium approach to carbon peak. Caron peak values are forecasted to be 1.62, 1.33 and 1.14 times of 2020 under benchmark, low carbon and comprehensive control scenarios, respectively, and will reach the carbon peak in the years of 2038, 2030 and 2027 under the three scenarios, largely impacted by GDP growth rate per capita, scientific-technical inputs, proportions of the second and the third industries, fossil energy proportion and energy consumption intensity. Carbon peak is forecasted to be the nearest under the comprehensive control scenario, with minimum carbon emission peak value, a practical premium plan. The optimized approaches to carbon peak needs to be based on determining appropriate GDP growth rate per capita, boosting scientific-technical inputs, decreasing the second and the third industries proportion, adjusting energy structure and decreasing energy consumption intensity.
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    WEN Shaobo, CHEN Zhihua, LIU Xueyong
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221014.001
    Abstract141)         PDF(mobile) (2148KB)(103)    Save
    REEs are indispensable materials for advanced manufacturing, new energy, new industries, and the weapon industry. China has an asymmetric dependence with America on REE mining and processing. This paper uses complicated network to recognize the evolutional process of China-America's Competition-Cooperation in the global REE markets, and establishes an index system to quantitatively identify China's confronting REE supply risks from REEs market concentration, producers' supply capacity and willingness, attempting to provide reference for China to make REE policies amid competition with America. China has a changing competition with America in the global REE markets, facing potential supply risks when China maintain REE market advantages relying on external sourcing. Viewing for market concentration, China has a declining REE market influencing power. China's top 2 REE suppliers are weak in supplying, and it is possible that China's major REE partners to interrupt supplying REE resources.
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    GAO Shan, CAO Mingxia, LI Dan
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230509.001
    Abstract126)      PDF(pc) (1502KB)(172)       Save
    Carbon emission estimation and peak planning are effective local attempts to materialize nation ‘s “dual-carbon” objective. This paper, based on the connection between carbon emission estimation and carbon peaking forecast,estimates Jiangsu ‘s carbon emission from energy consumption, industrial and agricultural production and waste disposal,overviews the phased features of regional carbon emission, energy use and industrial structures, and uses Kaya formula to set up key factors,which are employed to forecast the developing potential of population, economic growth and energy structures. Carbon reduction paths and carbon peaking plans are designed under low, middle and high carbon peaking scenarios. Jiangsu ‘s carbon emission from 2005 to 2019 shows a fluctuated increment at a gentle speed, and increases by 1.11 times, mainly contributed by high-carbon energy and industrial structures, up to 90% from energy consumption and industrial production, along with rice planting and solid waste incineration. Future carbon emission is closely related to population, economic growth, energy intensity, energy structure. Among three carbon peaking scenarios from 2020 to 2030, Jingsu ‘s carbon emission will peak at 1.026 billion tons in 2027 in low constraint plan, three years earlier than in middle and high constraint plans with extra reduction of 0.054 and 0.112 billion tons respectively. Low constraint plan is consistent with international rules, favorable for achieving carbon reduction and carbon neutralization. This paper suggests controlling carbon increment scale, promoting implementation of low constraint plan, focusing on clean replacement of renewable energy and low carbon technical applications of manufacturing, transportation, construction and agriculture while maintaining economic stability.
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    ZHAO Zhendong, LIU Guoqing, XIN Jianghui, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 27-39.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220802.001
    Abstract124)      PDF(pc) (2657KB)(119)       Save

    HFCV industry is a sustainable direction to fuel transformation and automobile industry; it catches China’s much attention. Due to the lagging fuel electric automobile industry, its operation is still in demonstration. Industrial evolution and changes are directly related to its development strategies and policies on HFCV industry; industrial predictability is a vital basis for a successful industrial policy. This paper, aiming at boosting China’s industrialization process of HFCV and at fulfilling the industrial policies, establishes a systematic dynamics causality model and stock flow model of HFCV in Jiangsu province based on related policies, reference and industrial plannings, which have been validated. Its evolutional trend and scenarios simulation and policy also reveal the impacts of different financial allowance policies on this sector. Under the current policies, it is hard to reach the 2030 objectives on HFCV stock and hydrogen fuel stations in that the purchase allowance policies have little impact on sales. Decreasing hydrogen price and increasing hydrogen fuel stations can boost this sector’s scale and industrialization. Gas-hydrogen stations, lower in cost, can have a better operating performance in meeting the demands of hydrogen compared with hydrogen stations. This paper presents suggestions on increasing inputs on HFCV industry, adjusting allowance policies, optimizing financial allowance allocation, focusing on hydrogen energy infrastructure construction, especially the hydrogen stations, decreasing purchase allowance. This also gives proposals on demonstrating purchase inputs at the prior stage, intensifying hydrogen(gas-hydrogen) station construction at the later stage. This study provides helpful references for governments to make appropriate industrial policies on HFCV industry.

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    NIE Zhiping, WANG Yiwen
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 79-96.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220816.001
    Abstract124)      PDF(pc) (1155KB)(49)       Save
    Study of either retroaction effect or crowding out effect between environmental information disclosure and companies’ innovation is key to reaching a win-win between environmental protection and economic development. This paper uses legality, reputation, signal transmission and stakeholder theories to study the impacts of environmental information disclosure on resource companies’ innovation. Results show environmental information disclosure can notably increases resource companies’ innovative level, hard disclosure works more compared with soft disclosure. Negative media supervision will offset companies’ reputation and financing advantage brought from environmental information disclosure to some extent, then constraining resource companies’ innovative capacity, but other media will not promote their innovative levels upon environmental information disclosure. Governmental supervision and analysts’ attention will not positively adjust the relation between environmental information disclosure and innovative level of resource companies, but analyst’s attention will work if resource companies discloses hard environmental information, which is a good practice for green innovative transformation. Governments need to further optimize environmental information disclosure system in a unified standard, and to fulfill media supervision and analysts’ social supervision.
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    XUE Song, ZHAO Jingjing, YANG Tao
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 109-121.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220526.001
    Abstract112)      PDF(pc) (1255KB)(77)       Save
    Knowledge sharing and green innovation are two key factors in shaping industrial sustainable competitiveness, and play a vital role in infrastructures’ transformation to sustainability. This paper, aiming at their collaboration among knowledge sharing, green innovation and infrastructures sustainable development, uses the relation structure in the measurement table to establish an interactively simulated model, which is verified and corrected by confirmed data from questionnaire. Knowledge sharing channel, behavior and environment promote the sustainable development of infrastructures, most contributed by knowledge sharing behavior. Green technical innovation and green system innovation play a positive role on the sustainable development of infrastructures, of which green technical innovation plays the bigger part. Three approaches, green technical innovation to knowledge sharing channel, green system innovation to knowledge sharing environment, green technical innovation/green system innovation to knowledge sharing behavior, play a mediating role in promoting the sustainable development of infrastructures. Green innovation may further boost the indirect impact of knowledge sharing on the sustainable development of infrastructures, but less from its direct impact. This paper presents suggestions on encouraging knowledge sharing behavior, setting up knowledge sharing system, constructing knowledge sharing environment for a sustainable development. Green collaborative innovation promotes the infrastructures. This paper provides theoretical references for a quality sustainable development of infrastructures.
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    TIAN Ze, XIAO Lingying, LIANG Wei, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 14-26.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220630.001
    Abstract111)      PDF(pc) (1406KB)(64)       Save
    Yellow River stream is entering a period of ecological protection and quality development. Study on the coupling coordination between its industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development is of significance in reaching the goals. This paper applies temporal-spatial range entropy weights to estimate Yellow River stream’s 2009 to 2019 industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development levels, and uses calibrated coupling coordination model to measure their coordination, and employs Dagum Gini coefficient and decomposition to study the regional variance between industrial green low-carbon transformation and quality economic development with Kernel density estimation dispatched to study its dynamics. Its industrial green low-carbon transformation level is at 0.449, and quality economic development level at 0.490, with annual growth rate at 5.84% and 7.1%, respectively, overall in a upgrading trend, but industrial green low-carbon transformation is notably behind its quality economic development. Their coordination level is low at 0.55, with annual growth rate at 3.2%, 0.629 in 2019, a turning point from off coordinated to preliminarily coordinated. The both are not at the same pace in coordination with coupling coordination showing a spatial distribution of “high-in-lower stream, middle-in-middle stream and low-in-upper stream”, 0.59, 0.561 and 0.529, respectively. Their overall spatial variance is diminishing, primarily contributed by their regional variance with a contributing value at 46.97%, secondarily by the internal variance with a contributing value at 33.54%. This paper presents suggestions on constructing regional green low-carbon industrial system, exploring differentiated policies and boosting trans-stream cooperation.
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    HUANG Yushan, ZOU Chen
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 132-144.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220615.001
    Abstract107)      PDF(pc) (1261KB)(60)       Save

    As China’s strategy of world scientific & technical power develops, scientific & technical talents need more attention as part of regional competitiveness. This paper studies their inner, environmental and productive competitiveness of six regional integrations on scientific & technical talents in economy, industries, markets, ecological environment, infrastructure and public servicing in Yangtze River Delta, and uses 2010 to 2018 panel data of 41 cities to explore the heterogeneity of regional integration on talents competitiveness at different economic developing stages. Yangtze River Delta’s integration is currently in the form of market integration; innovation- and efficiency-driven urban integration are market integration and economic integration, respectively. Regional integration can attract more scientific & technical talents, boost their migration between industries and regions, increasing their internal competitiveness from quantity and quality. Regional integration provides a convenient and comfortable living environment, increases talents’ income, raises environmental competitiveness for talents. Regional integration also helps economic & scientific factors flow with removal of localized-benefit economy, and improves productivity of patent and economy, hence increases productive competitiveness of talents. Compared with innovation-driven cities, efficiency-driven cities pay more attention to increasing talents’ living level for promoting their quantity, but below innovation-driven cities both from patent and economic productive capacities. This paper presents suggestions on intensifying talents’ competitiveness in Yangtze River Delta from ecological green integration, public services integration and urban coordinated development in different stages.

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    ZHAO Min, CHU Peipei
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 51-66.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220915.001
    Abstract105)      PDF(pc) (1509KB)(60)       Save
    Rural industrial integration is a fundamental approach to agricultural industrial bloom, and also a key solution to rural, agricultural and farmers’ issues. Increasing rural industrial integration level is a critical means to agricultural economy. This paper uses entropy weights to estimate 31 Chinese provinces’ 2008 to 2020 rural industrial integration level, and analyzes the spatial convergence and differentiated characteristic based on spatial conditionalβconvergence model. Results show that rural industrial integration level is low, only 40% of the target. Regionally, horizontal rising rate displays a deceasing tend from east, west and to central. Provincewide variance is less than cross-provincial. China’s rural industrial integration level is outstandingly of spatially conditionalβconvergence, with its convergence period shortened by 6 years. Rural industrial integration level is mostly contributed by financing agriculture, agricultural technical advances and farmers’ rising consumption level, but its convergence is slightly constrained by human capital. Spatially, rural industrial integration level in three areas is of notable “club convergence”, higher that the national average, also with a stronger spatial positive overflowing effect. Temporally, convergence rate in 2016 to 2020 is higher than 2008 to 2015, in which economic development and human capital work variably in direction and extent. This paper presents suggestions on optimizing top design, and modernizing agricultural industries, boosting financing agriculture, agricultural technical advances and farmers’ consumption level, improving imbalanced agricultural industrial integration, paying attention on talents, fulfilling the positive promotion of human capital on rural industrial integration level and high value convergence, and establishing a concept of wholly national rural industrial integration system and realizing a balanced development of nationwide rural industrial integration.
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    LIU Rong, WU Qiuhao
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 40-50.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221018.001
    Abstract101)      PDF(pc) (1668KB)(42)       Save
    This paper selects 8 pieces of 2016 to 2020 policy samples to establish a PMC model, which is employed to construct an evaluation system of water-saving policies on 10 tier 1 variables and 45 tier 2 variables. Text extraction is used to select the key words in the policies, and inputs & outputs from water-saving evaluation system are given values. PMC indicators and curves are employed to discover the pros and cons of policies. Representative water-saving policies in “the 13th  five-year plan” are evaluated to summarize water-saving experience, execution progress and issues aiming at providing references for further water-saving management, and at facing new water resource situation in China. 8 pieces of policies have an average PMC indicator at 7.3, generally at the level of excellence. Five indicators in single policy which are above 7 are at the level of excellence, and at the level of acceptance if three above 6, suggesting an overall appropriate water-saving policies design in China, but along with issues in insufficient policy effectiveness, lacks of stimulating approaches, limited water saving, single viewing angle, imbalanced tool usage, and inadequate regional features. This paper presents suggestions on planning China’s water-saving policies under multiple perspectives to increase policy quality, on increasing encouraging and constraining approaches, including governmental allowance, capital investment, technical supports, preferential taxation, welcoming more participants in saving water, adding on-demand policy tools, pushing water-saving industrial development and intensifying policy’s regional features. This summary presents reference for further water-saving work.
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    WANG Ning, LI Yinguo
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 29-30.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221017.001
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (1239KB)(39)       Save
    Green development has attracted worlds' attention by its resource-saving and environment-friendly orientation under the background of sustainable development, with its focus on increasing green total factor productivity (GTFP), which marks the economic growth efficiency, also considers resource consumption and environmental pollution. Amid “the Belt and Road” construction, China is increasing its investment in the nations. This paper uses panel threshold model to study the impacts of China's OFDI on “the Blet and Road” nations' GTFP based on China and those nations' political, economic, and environmental differences. Results show that China's OFDI plays a positive role on “the Belt and Road” nations' GTFP, which also is limited by the political and economic regime distance, diminishing with regime distance. Regression coefficient of China's OFDI on “the Belt and Road” nations' GTFP is 0.072 when their political regime distance is less than 1.986, 0.058 between 1.986 to 2.513, and 0.012 when larger than 2.513. Regression coefficient is 0.102 when economic regime distance is less than 1.440, 0.085 between 1.440 to 2.575, and 0.023 when larger than 2.575. Increasing OFDI can offset the impacts of political and economic distance. Positive impacts of China's OFDI on “the Belt and Road” nations' GTFP increases from 0.028 to 0.122 when China's OFDI scale increases from 3.899 to 4.15.
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    ZHOU Jing, HAN Jiqin
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 31-43.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221026.003
    Abstract98)      PDF(pc) (1771KB)(51)       Save

    As uncertain risks are rising in global politics and economy, anti-globalization which is harmful for industrial security and stability begin to arise. To discuss if China’s energy trade cooperation with the Belt and Road nations can offset the adverse impacts of anti-globalization and deeply analyze the role of international energy cooperation on the energy security of participating countries and regions and the underlying impact mechanism. This paper attempts to uses Tobit model and basic regression model to study the impacts of China’s energy trade cooperation with the Belt and Road nations on energy security during 2000 to 2020 under the Blet and Road Proposal from energy consumption and production with robustness tested. Results show China can guarantee itself energy consumption security and energy production security under China’s energy trades with the Belt and Road nations. Increasing the total energy trade between China and the Belt and Road nations can improve the energy consumption security level of these nations by reducing the energy use costs of cooperative energy consuming nations. Also can improve the energy production security level of these nations by promoting economic growth of cooperative energy producing nations. Constrained by the geographic location, the positive effect of energy trade cooperation between China and Asian countries along  “the Belt and Road” is more significant than that of other regions. This paper concludes that China’s energy trade with the Belt and Road nations can positively promote their economic sustainability, guarantee energy security and reach a mutual bloom. In order to maintain the energy security of China and  the Belt and Road nations, we should constantly expand and deepen the energy cooperation between  “the Belt and Road” nations, promote the diversification of energy trade, continue to optimize the international cooperation environment, and create good external conditions for international energy trade. To resist the security threats posed by various external adverse factors to China’s participation in international energy trade, China should constantly enhance its comprehensive strength to ensure the safety and smoothness of international energy transport channels. For a sustainable energy development, China shall boost its’ international cooperation with the Belt and Road nations on clean and new energies and reform their energy production and consumption ways.

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    HUANG Weirun, ZHOU Xintong, LI Jinhui, et al
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 14-22.   DOI: 10.13776/.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221026.002
    Abstract96)      PDF(pc) (1785KB)(70)       Save

    China’s economy is shifting from rapid growth to quality development, causing China’s gold industry to shift away from the previous extensive development pattern based on scale and speed. In this paper, we developed a method for conducting a one-year quantitative material flow analysis in China’s mainland for 2019, based on statistical data and previous studies, for a better understanding of the current situation in the social-economic metabolism of gold. The funding allows us to gain a better understanding of the domestic gold cycle, which includes production, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management. According to the findings, 1 015t of refined gold flowed from the production stage to the fabrication and manufacturing stage, with 900t lost as tailings and slag. In the fabrication and manufacturing stage, 781t of gold is imported, 1 706t of fined gold entered into the use stage, and 90t of gold dissipated. China’s gold supply suffered a high external dependence of 52.5% in 2019. In the use stage, total gold demand was 1 641t, of which consumption was 1 003t. Gold jewelry accounted for 67.4% of the consumption. At the waste management stage, China recovered 465t of refined gold in 2019, making up for 27% of the total supply. China’s gold production primarily relies on mining, secondarily on metallurgical byproducts, which was rising up to 16% in 2019 from 9% in 2000, indicating that the domestic gold industry’s intensity is gradually improving. China has had a great demand and high external dependence on gold. In recent years, China’s industrial gold consumption has increased rapidly. Domestic gold demand will continue to rise as the electronic industry develops. Recycled gold accounts for a significant portion of domestic gold supply, particularly golden jewelry recycling, which has greater economic benefits than industrial gold recycling, which requires further technological and industrial chain enhancement.

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    CHENG Ming, YAN Feng, DU Tingxia, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 97-108.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220829.001
    Abstract94)      PDF(pc) (1821KB)(41)       Save

    As economic globalization develops, R&D plays a key role in increasing innovative capacities and booting economic structural optimization. Study on dynamic relation among R&D inputs, innovative performance and economic growth can give us a deep understanding on regional innovative transformation, and provide references on innovative drives changes. This paper uses Shandong’s 2012 to 2020 16 prefectures’ panel data to establish PVAR model, and applies pulse response function and deviation to their interaction among R&D inputs, innovative performance and economic growth, and their variance in Shandong’s three economic zones. R&D inputs show one stage lagging behind economic growth, but faster in capital and Jiandong economic zones with their contributing rates up to 40.1% and 39.8%, respectively. Economic growth plays an adverse role against innovative performance, more in Jiaodong economic zone. Innovative performance promotes economic growth, with a contributing rate up to 85.9% in southern Shandong economic zone. R&D inputs have a low contributing rate to innovative performance, lagging 1 to stages in Jiaodong economic zone. Innovative performance promotes R&D inputs in a lagging 1 stage, but faster in capital and Jiaodong economic zones, with a contributing rate up to 80.4% in southern Shandong economic zone. The results generally show an interactive promotion among economic growth, R&D inputs and innovative performance. In capital economic zone, economic growth and R&D inputs have promoting roles on innovative performance, with a low conversion capacity from economic growth and R&D inputs to innovative performance. In Jiaodong economic zone, an outstanding promoting role exists both between economic growth and R&D inputs, and between R&D inputs and innovative performance, but low in the conversion rate between innovative outputs and economic growth. In southern Shandong economic zone, economic growth and R&D inputs have promotion on innovative performance, but insufficient beneficial interaction among the three.

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    LIU Wanbo, ZHANG Hui, WANG Hui, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 67-78.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220525.001
    Abstract93)      PDF(pc) (6667KB)(62)       Save

    This paper, based on recognition of urban multiple-centralization spatial structure, analyzes their spatial conglomeration of different functionalities, and studies the expanding trend of suburbanization of downtown’s manufacturing in Shenyang, and presents references for upgrading Shenyang’s downtown manufacturing and urban spatial organization. This paper uses POI data, ArcGIS10.7, GeoDa1.12 and Crimestat 3.3 softwares to identify 2020 urban multiplecentralized spatial structure by means of core density, spatial hotspot conglomeration, standard variance eclipse and spatial auto-correlation, and measures their spatial correlation among different functional facilities, and analyzes the manufacturing conglomeration in 1998, 2008 and 2020. In 2020, Shenyang’s urban spatial structure is characterized by multiple-centralized, layer-radiated, forming three-hierarchy urban centralized systems through a urban planning one-major-four-minor, generally consistent with Shenyang’s 2011 to 2020 overall urban planning. Besides single center in downtown, each minor city also has itself minor center, corresponding to multiple-centralized urban spatial structure. During 1998 to 2020, manufacturing has been migrating outward from downtown, mainly distributing in the third and forth rings in west and south, like Tiexi new city and Yongan new city. Shenyang’s functional space displays southwest to northeast extension with center-suburb urban function system. Spatial correlation exists among different functional districts. Industrial district represented by manufacturing is exclusive with single urban function, having strong spatial correlation among residential, commercial, public administrative and functional facilities as a comprehensive servicing center. This paper presents suggestions for Shenyang on further improving urban functions and optimizing industrial layout, and boosting living services in the industrial district which is of urban core production functions.

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    NIE Zhiping, FAN Xiaowen
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (1): 122-131.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220614.001
    Abstract92)      PDF(pc) (1114KB)(32)       Save

    Advanced manufacturing plays a key part in China’s quality economic growth, mainly driven by innovation, which needs pay attention on how it works. This paper uses 2013 to 2019 A stock-listed advanced manufacturing companies data to study the tie between their strategic variance and innovation investments. Their research & development (R&D) investments vary largely with the strategies; the bigger the strategic variance, the lower the R&D investment. Trade credit financing is one of the mediating paths to impacting their R&D investments, suggesting strategic variance will decrease their R&D investments through constraining the advanced manufacturing companies’ trade credit financing size, outstandingly on those with more constraints. Results are still robust after verified by tool variable and adjusted strategic variances. This conclusion helps China’s advanced manufacturing select appropriate strategic position and advance technical innovation, and verifies the importance of trade credit financing on advanced manufacturing’s technical innovations. Advanced manufacturing companies need to consider the possible economic aftermath if they are off the conventional strategies, largely impacting their R&D investments. Most advanced manufacturing companies are suggested selecting a following strategy if they are not strong in innovative resources; their pursuit of eccentric strategy may be harmful to their technical innovation. This paper gives suggestions for advanced manufacturing companies on treasuring their credits, intensifying the ties with customers and suppliers, which may relieve their financing constraints due to strategic variance, favorable for their technical innovations.

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    XU Yuzhu, TAN Juntao, WANG Zhongzhi
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 10-18.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221009.001
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (2471KB)(57)       Save
    This paper uses inverse function method to estimate the resilience of Jiangsu's overall economy and the third industry from resistance and recovery, and employs geographical detector model to study its factors. Jiangsu's economic resistance is outstandingly higher than the nation's average, geographically showing low-in-south/north and high-in-center. Industrial resistance has a decreasing order of the second, the first and the third industries with all three industries distributing variably. Jiangsu's economic recovery is also above the nation's average, but with a decreasing trend, geographically high-low-high-low pattern northward transforming to a later south-high-north-low pattern. Economic recovery of the first and the second industries has improved largely, with the third industry declining outstandingly. Overseas trading dependence, back-to-work progress and industrial structure have a higher explanatory powerto economic resistance, and industrial structure, medical level and back-to-work progress higher to economic recovery. Among resilience-related factors, medical level, back-to-work progress and proportion of the third industry are the major drives for regional economic resilience, but overseas trading dependence and proportion of the second industry are the negative factors. This paper presents suggestions on post-COVID-19 economic recovery and quality development for Jiangsu province.
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    HE Lishi, SHAN Xiaoyu
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 124-134.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221011.001
    Abstract86)      PDF(pc) (1199KB)(68)       Save
    Protecting ecological environment is a key step in guaranteeing sustainable use of natural resources. Orientation of residents’green consumption behavior contributes to mitigating China's natural resources pressure, to reducing environmental pollution and boosting urban sustainable development. This paper, based on Stimuli-Organism-Response (SOR) model, uses empathy as mediating variable, and natural anthropomorphism as moderating variable to construct a conceptual model regarding impacts of information framework (loss framework vs. gain framework) on green consumption behaviors with two experiments applied to discuss its internal mechanism. Compared with gain framework, loss framework can improve individual intention on green consumption behaviors more. Empathy plays a mediating role between information framework and green consumption behavior intention, at a mediating value at 0.319. Under the loss framework, individual has a higher empathy degree. The mediating of empathy on green consumption behaviors in information framework can be positively moderated by natural anthropomorphism, the higher natural anthropomorphism, the stronger mediating of empathy, and the stronger influences of loss framework (vs. gain framework) on individual empathy and green consumption behavior intention. This study as a supplement to the green consumption behavior system presents theoretical and practical references for governments and enterprises to conduct green sales and for individual green consumption behaviors. 
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    TIAN Guiliang, LIANG Lan, WU Zheng, et al
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 1-13.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221027.002
    Abstract80)      PDF(pc) (2267KB)(78)       Save

    China’s natural resources administration system has provide a vital guarantee for natural resources use and protection over the past decades as a booster to ecological civilization construction, but it still has shortages in lack of rights and responsibilities and in overlapping of leadership and management, leading to lots of issues in unclear ownership subject of natural resources, fuzzy boundary of right confirmation and insufficient protection of property rights. This paper uses property rights theory to analyze the evolution of China’s natural resources administration system under guideline of the 14th Five-Year Planand 2035 Outlook, establishes a research framework of system evolution-issues discussion-approach optimization, and applies Pigovian tax, Coase Theorem, and new system economics theory to qualitative analysis of the natural resources assets property rights system optimization direction. Its evolution of natural resources administration system shows a clarifying ownership at a trend of separation of ownership and using right. Governments as the administrator of market shall uses power to mark market limit and make marketing rules. System performance is mainly related to the gaming between governments and markets, which may be promoted by optimizing the property rights system of affiliation-rights & responsibilities-protection-transfer-supervision. The research concludes that in order to improve the natural resources assets property rights system in our country, we should clarify the property rights, and realize the property rights in the legal subject clearly relying on the regulatory effect of the classification agent system. The content of registration and accounting should be clarified, and the information management platform of natural resources assets should be built to accurately grasp the assets, and use the ecological protection compensation mechanism to support the protection system, strengthen the intensity of protection, guarantee market transactions. Marketized trading platform shall be used to improve the allocating efficiency of natural resources, to transfer asset stock to asset increment. Supervision system shall be improved in all process which limits governmental power lists to avoid governmental monopoly.

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    XU Wenhao, XIE Yulei, JI Ling, et al
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 44-53.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221027.003
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (3509KB)(55)       Save
    Guangdong province has surging demand for energy consumption as it speeds up its industrialization and new urbanization, leaving key points on how to adjust provincial energy consumption structure, boost intensive and clean use of energy and decrease carbon emission as Guangdong’s responses to “Dual Carbon Strategy”. This paper analyzes the dynamic changes of energy consumption in each sectors in Guangdong province from multiple perspectives,  explores their ecological relations of sectors in energy consumption networks,  and presents scientific theoretical basis and policy recommendations for Guangdong to make differentiated energy saving consumption reducing policies regarding its “Five-in-One” overall layout. By collecting the input-output tables and energy consumption lists of Guangdong province in 2007, 2012 and 2017, this paper relies on input-output theory and ecological network analysis. By constructing an input-output ecological network model, the direct and indirect energy consumption of 26 sectors in the social and economic system of Guangdong, the energy flow among the sectors and the ecological relationship among the sectors were quantitatively analyzed and evaluated. From the perspective of direct energy consumption, transportation, warehousing, and postal industry(S24)and manufacture of metal smelting and rolling processing(S13)are key industries that policy makers need to pay special attention to, while indirect energy consumption caused by heavy industries such as chemical industry(S11)and manufacture of nonmetal mineral products(S12)cannot be ignored. A strong correlation exists between construction(S23)and manufacture of nonmetal mineral products(S12)with a coexisting index less than 1 in energy consumption system, suggesting a sub-healthy system. A strong control and reliance is displayed between the secondary and the tertiary industries, which needs a coordinated development while encouraging industrial transformation. This paper presents suggestions for Guangdong on executing energy saving consumption reducing approaches both in production and consumption sides, and increasing the utilization rate of inter-medium products and developing recycling economy. A trans-sector cooperative energy saving system is proposed to promote a shift in energy saving consumption reducing from single sector to multiple sectors.
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    YIN Qingmin, JIN Wanting
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (2): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230309.002
    Abstract76)      PDF(pc) (1284KB)(85)       Save

    Study of impacts of technical innovation on green total factor productivity from perspective of industrial agglomeration is of strategic significance to promoting a coordinated development between technical innovation and green economy in China and keeping same pace between industrial development and environmental protection. This paper, based on 2008 to 2019 provincial panel data of Chinese provinces (cities), uses SBM model and GML indicator to estimate the dynamic changes of green total factor productivity in 30 Chinese provinces (cities), and applies threshold regression model and adjusting effect model to discuss the threshold and adjusting effects of financing & manufacturing conglomeration on technical innovative achievements and green total factor productivity. Results show a strikingly positive coefficient of technical innovative achievements on green total factor productivity, a positive adjusting and sole threshold effect of financing conglomeration on technical innovative achievement and green total factor productivity, and a negative adjusting of manufacturing conglomeration, and an outstandingly adjusting of local public budget, residents usable income per capita and foreign investment on green total factor productivity. This paper presents suggestions on focusing on their match between technical innovative achievements and green economic development, enabling digital financing to break the spatial barrier of financing, converting manufacturing to a quality conglomeration, properly allocating financing resources in environmental protection sector, and boosting supervision of foreign investment in environmental protection.

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    WANG Bin
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 42-52.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230427.003
    Abstract75)      PDF(pc) (1627KB)(19)       Save

    Oil-gas contracts and fiscal & tax polices,which are two core factors in investing overseas oil-gas, largely determine the gain distribution mode and proportion between investors and hosting governments. This paper studies Colombia ‘s oil-gas fiscal & tax policies aiming at providing reference for Chinese investors under new situation. After introducing the history and situation of Colombia ‘s oil-gas fiscal & tax contracts, this paper establishes an economic evaluation model based on the fiscal & tax terms of new and  old oil-gas contracts, which is used to economically evaluate oil-gas projects under multiple scenarios from oil price, production scales and API degree. Evaluation system is constructed, including 9 indicators on fiscal & tax economy and stability, to benchmark the top ten oil-gas resources countries in this area. Colombia ‘s new contract mode decreases the involvement and economic gain of hosting government and increases foreign investors ‘ operating freedom and economic gains. Multiple scenarios economic evaluation shows that the net cash flow per cubic meter under the high oil price is more than that of the low oil price. Heavy oil assets with lower API degree have tax incentives, and the tax cost per cubic meter increases under the high production scale. Colombia ‘s oil-gas fiscal & tax attractiveness benchmark shows that it ranks the fourth among South America ‘s top 10 oil-gas countries. Colombia ‘s oil-gas resources and fiscal & tax policies are of relative advantages in this area, of prospecting outlook in future oil-gas cooperation.This paper presents suggestion for Chinese investors on paying more attention to investing oil-gas industry in Colombia, focusing on the impact of assets type on economic benefits, and risks brought by policy adjustment.

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    SUN Caizhi, , ZHANG Jialiang
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 40-50.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221009.002
    Abstract72)      PDF(pc) (3001KB)(41)       Save
    Virtual water hidden in the products migrates as trades develop. This paper uses agricultural trading data of China and the “Belt and Road” nations to estimate the virtual water content in 2001, 2007, 2013 and 2019 agricultural trading, and analyzes their virtual water flow pattern, and applies rank-size and fractal theory to study their trading sizes and spatial distribution so as to analyze their monopoly and dependence. Results show that China's net imported virtual water has increased from 8.3 billion cubic meters to 87.5 from the “Belt and Road” nations from 2001 to 2019, China's net exported nations has increased to 27 from 7, distributing even with a declining monopoly from top-ranking nations. China's net exported virtual water types are mainly green, 85.9% yearly, chiefly from southeastern and southern Asia and eastern Europe. China's net imported virtual water types are green and gray, 65.03% and 24.07% yearly, respectively, mainly to Africa and western Asia, Southern Asia, eastern Europe, middle Asia, Africa, and southern Europe had transformed to net exported nations from net imported, leaving eastern Asia net imported nations.
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    LI Yang, LI Huajiao, FENG Sida
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 69-81.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230427.002
    Abstract68)      PDF(pc) (4591KB)(73)       Save

    China ‘s new energy vehicle industry is expanding as a strategic emerging industry and has become an important force in industrial upgrading. Its supply chain has been prolonged, detailed, and its industrial structure has been developing. Uncertain external environment and increasingly complicated internal structure make it important to understand the evolutionary mechanism and developing law of new energy vehicle industry. This paper, aiming at exploring the endogenous development mechanism of China ‘s new energy vehicle industry, uses China ‘s new energy vehicle trading data from 2008 to 2020 to establish a supply-demand dependance network among listed companies of this industry, and studies its evolutionary characteristics. Empirical research is carried out to verify evolutionary mechanism of the supply-demand dependance network based on financial data and public sentiment data, via stochastic actor-oriented model from three dimensions of endogenous network structure, situation factors and company attributes. China ‘s new energy vehicle industry shows a local-centralized supply-demand dependence structure, and regional leading enterprises are boosting their abilities in controlling supply chain. Formation and evolution of industrial supply-demand dependence network is impacted by endogenous mechanism, such as preference attachment effect and triangle loop effect, and promoted by co-executive relationship. This paper presents suggestions for advancing China ‘s new energy vehicle industry on regional commercial cooperation, optimizing co-executive relationship and caring vulnerable companies.Governments and professional associations should continue boosting industrial cluster construction and supporting regional integration on policies and standards, enhancing free migration of capital, technical and industrial data.Industrial policies are adjusted to optimize industrial demand-supply relation through constraining or promoting co-executive relationship.Tracking commercial sentiment can recognize potential dependance relation, comprehend industrial network dependance structure, helpful in directing investment and recognizing risks. Governments shall take care of vulnerable companies, be vigilant on industrial structural imbalance, and also pay attention to notable companies with higher standard operating code and supervision, fully disclosing their financial information.

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    JIANG Xiangcheng, LIU Jiahui
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (2): 65-75.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230314.003
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (1231KB)(37)       Save

    Yellow River stream has lots of water resource issues, low quality and imbalanced. Understanding the factors influencing water resource use efficiency and mastering the relation between water resource use and high-quality economic development are important to boost the sustainable development in Yellow River stream. This paper uses undesired output super-efficiency SBM model and entropy to estimate 2011 to 2020 water resource use efficiency and high-quality economic development comprehensive index of Yellow River stream, and discusses their relation by means of Tapio decoupling model, and employs Tobit model to test the factors influencing water resource use efficiency. Results suggest that 2011 to 202 average water use efficiency in Yellow River stream is less than 1, far reach to be effective, but the high-quality economic development shows a rising trend, both varying geographically, decreasing from down-to upper-stream. Their relation has been fluctuating during 2011 to 2020, which had undergone weak decoupling, strong decoupling, expansive connection, weak decoupling, expansively negative decoupling and strong decoupling. Economic development level, technical innovation and governmental influencing power play a positive role on water resource use efficiency in Yellow River stream, but industrial structure and water use structure does on the contrast.

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    WEI Qingming, ZHAO Xinxin, FENG Xin, ZHANG Miaomiao
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 54-63.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221101.001
    Abstract65)      PDF(pc) (1208KB)(40)       Save

    China is focusing on green economic transformation and industrial structure upgrading, how to pay attention to the relationship among environmental regulation, green innovation and industrial structure, in order to obtain the triple bonus of environmental protection, green technological innovation and industrial structure upgrading, has become one of the important issues in Chinese academic circle nowadays. This paper, based on 2003 to 2019 provincial panel data of China’s 30 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities, uses spatial Dubin model to compare the impacts of environmental regulation and green innovation on industrial structure upgrading under three weight matrixes, and to measure the direct, indirect and gross effects of the main explanatory variables, and empirically tests whether environmental regulation and green innovation promote industrial structure upgrading in eastern, central and western regions of China. Generally, environmental regulation and green innovation promote rationalization and upgrading of industrial structure under three spatial weight matrixes, increase by 1% of environmental regulation intensity at geographical distance matrix will lead to an increase by 0 065% in upgrading of industrial structure. The influence of green innovation on the upgrading of industrial structure is most significant in the geographical distance matrix, with the influence coefficient reaching 0 066. Viewing from overflowing effect, upgrading of industrial structure can be directly contributed by environmental regulation at geographic distance matrix, and indirectly by green innovation through spatial overflowing effect. In regional heterogeneity, environmental regulation promotes the upgrading of industrial structure most in the western, but little in the central and eastern, green innovation plays a positive role in a developing trend of in western more than central and in central more than eastern. It concludes China shall strive to improve green innovative abilities and urbanization, and promote industrial transformation of high pollution enterprises, increase environmental regulation intensity and make differentiated regional policies to prevent industrial transfer of pollution asylum effect, which is of significance in boosting China’s industrial structure upgrading and reaching a quality and green economic development.

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    TIAN Weimin, ZHAO Yinghui, MA Baitong
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 151-162.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221027.001
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (2121KB)(24)       Save

    This paper aims at studying the structural evolution of urban construction land and its mechanism and at allocating appropriate construction land, and presents theoretical supports and policy suggestions for the Three Northeastern Provinces to make urban land planning. Urban construction land is divided into Category R (residential), Category M (logistic warehouse and industrial), Category C (public management and public services, commercial service, public infrastructure), Category S (road, green land and square land) according to “Urban Construction Statistics Yearly”. Information entropy and shift-share analysis are employed to study their construction land structural evolution in 34 Northeastern cities by means of GIS spatial analysis. Since 2002, their construction land size has been rising at a annual rate 4.14%,  most contributed by Categories C and S with increasement by 3.29% and 5.51%, respectively compared with 2002. Category R has a least increment among the four categories at a falling trend. Cities with shift effect positively adjusting role on share effect Categories M, C and S have significantly increased in counts, suggesting a rationalizing urban construction land structure in the Northeastern cities. Their construction land structure has had little change with a relatively stability in their proportions among the four categories since 2012. Improvements in industrial structural, urban transportation and urban residential conditions plays a strong role on construction land structural evolution in the Northeastern cities. Appropriate urban construction land structure may boost urban functionalities. Fulfilling comprehensive use efficiency of urban construction land can intensify a modern urban construction. This paper presents suggestions on making appropriate land use policies with priority on land types with growing advantages, diminishing excessive land types and activating the land stock for more rationalized construction land structure in the Northeastern cities.

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    WANG Bangjun, CUI Linyu
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 31-41.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230426.003
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (1980KB)(49)       Save

    Regional energy consumption variance has been negatively impacting economic structural transformation and China ‘s energy strategies due to multiple factors. Energy structure and energy consumption trend are studied to promote a coordinated development among economy, society, energy and environment, and materialize an optimized energy structural allocation and boost economic sustainability.This paper uses China ‘s 243 prefectures ‘ urban per capita energy consumption panel data from 2005 to 2019 to study the temporal-spatial distribution and evolution, and applies σ, β and club convergence to recognize its converging level of urban per capita energy consumption, and employs ordered regression model to study the mechanism of urban resources and initial resource development on urban per capita energy consumption transferring path. In China ‘s 243 prefectures, the urban per capita energy consumption has no overall convergence but club convergence, 4 converging clubs and 1 diverging club. Initial energy consumption level, urban industrial structure, opening-up level and per capital consumption level are the vital factors impacting club convergence. Opening-up level plays a negative role, and urban economic level and industrialized level play positively in clubs with higher per capita energy consumption. The reverse applies in clubs with lower per capita energy consumption. All factors work little in clubs with average. This paper presents suggestions on making appropriate policies and adjusting measures, maintaining proper population growth rate, increasing innovative level, altering industrial structure and degrading urban energy consumption.

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    ZHOU Haiwei, XU Ying
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 53-68.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230427.001
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (3828KB)(57)       Save
    Policy files have long been providing regulations for energy security. As energy security gets increasingly complicated, energy security policy making is facing new requirements. To clarify the topics, intensity and pattern of existing energy security policies, this paper sets up a 3D framework of “policy pivot point-intensity-tool” to provide reference for optimizing energy security policy system, and applies content analysis method to make quantitative and temporal-spatial analysis of 270 energy security policies from 1957 to 2021. Energy saving is the first priority to energy security. Northeastern China focuses on gas and heat supply, central China on green and security, eastern China on non-governmental organizations, and western China on the tie of energy and water, all missing environmental security and government assessment. Total intensity of policy rises with its quantity. Up to 85 pieces of policies are issued during the 13th Five-Year Plan, when the total intensity is the greatest. Mandatory policy tools are used at a rate of 89.07%, of which “prohibitionregulations” amounting to 26.8%, followed by “clarifying responsibilities” amounting to 14.15%. Hybrid and voluntary policy tools are used at a rate of 5.51% and 5.42%. This paper presents suggestions on paying more attention to assessment, environment and security,on pushing social organizations and funds into energy security, on making energy security strategies, constructing energy security policy system and planning policy issuing organizations, on deliberately reducing mandatory policy tools, improving governing methods and decreasing administrative costs. Government shall coordinate hybrid policy tools to fulfill marketing mechanism, and expand volunteer policy tools to boost advocation and intensify energy security awareness.
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    XU Jixiao, WANG Yao, TANG Yongjun
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 70-80.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221012.001
    Abstract61)      PDF(pc) (2201KB)(19)       Save
    Quality use of water resource is a vital way to deal with water crisis under the concept of sustainable development. Study on water resource allocation can not only provide solutions to water resource supply-demand conflict, but also boost a sustainable use of water resource, and also guarantee a quality social & economic development. This paper, based on a case study on Nanjing city, establishes a water resource optimized allocation model of multiple target areas under three red lines control, which is given solutions by applying multiple particle swarm algorithm in obtaining water resource optimized allocation plans for planning years. Results show Nanjing will have a water supply of 3.441 billion cubic meters in 2030 under three Red Lines control with a water shortage rate up to 8.22%. Industrial, agricultural and living water is the major uses with a fast-growing environmental water use. COD and Ammonia-Nitrogen are under good control, reaching a balanced development among economic, social and environmental benefit objectives. This paper presents suggestions on coordinating water supply-demand, optimizing industrial structure and combining protection with governance in order to promote a water resource quality development.
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    XIAO Yutong, CHEN Jun
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (3): 19-30.   DOI: 10.13776j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230426.001
    Abstract60)      PDF(pc) (2882KB)(53)       Save
    To get rid of zero-sum game in industrialized culture and to promote an equal global green energy cooperation in harnessing the global climate has become a vital global topic in carbon neutralization and human ‘s mutual community. This paper, based on developing stages, capabilities and responsibilities on global climate changes in developing and developed countries,analyzes the implementation mechanism of global green energy cooperation. A dynamic evolutionary gaming model is used to discuss an interaction between developed and developing countries on green energy competition and cooperation. Simulation is applied to study the impacts of initial major parameters ‘ changes on both gaming strategies under multiple scenarios, aiming at obtaining a dynamic evolutionary path and a stable strategy. Developed countries are complementary with developing ones in resources, market structures and developing desires.Green energy cooperation involving their mutual benefits, helpful in reaching the global carbon neutralization, is the optimal strategy. Governmental incentive policies playing a key role in their strategic choices may be increased as the expected benefits on global green energy coalition rises. A decreasing cost and risk in global green energy cooperation is favorable to reaching a win-win status between the gaming parties.Enhancing global green energy cooperation, mutually dealing with global climate changes and accelerating global carbon neutralization need to focus on governmental support, which can improve participants ‘ enthusiasm in global green energy coalition and increase the potential gains.Companies shall boost green low-carbon technical innovation to better develop and use green energy globally at a lower cost.All countries shall be cooperative in global green energy with removal of cold war views and zero-sum idea for a global transformation to green low-carbon development.
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    HOU Huimin, GUO Dongfang, SU Lijuan, XU He, et al
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 23-30.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221025.001
    Abstract59)      PDF(pc) (2431KB)(45)       Save
    As an agricultural giant, China’s surging needs of phosphorous fertilizer to guarantee its crop security leads to mass of the industrial solid waste phosphogypsum during production of phosphorous acid and fertilizer, which harms the environment if dumping in the long term. China began to vigorously promote the resource utilization of phosphogypsum in 2018, and formulated and issued a number of encouraging policies. However, the comprehensive utilization rate of phosphogypsum is still low up to now, and the resource utilization market still needs to be continuously constructed and improved. In this paper, based on the problem of unclear production quantity of phosphogypsum in China, the product/waste coefficient method was used to estimate the output of phosphogypsum in China from 1957 to 2019 based on the output of phosphogypsum in “China Industrial Statistical Yearbook”, after field investigation and analysis in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hubei, Anhui and other provinces, Guizhou province, which has a good comprehensive performance in the utilization of phosphogypsum resources, was selected as the key research object, the material flow analysis was carried out, and the material metabolism graph of phosphogypsum resource utilization was drawn. Temporally,  Guizhou has a rising resource utilization trend of phosphogypsum with a utilization ratio at 58.80% in 2018 to 107.37% in 2020, marking a start point for Guizhou uses the historically-dumping phosphogypsum solid waste. As for the resource utilization means, Guizhou consumes phosphogypsum up to 964.5kt, 360.4kt, 330.9kt and 234.8kt from underground backfilling, acid making and other chemical utilization, construction materials and cement retardant in the first quarter of 2021, with a comprehensive use rate up to 55.02%, still at the preliminary use stage of low added-values and small scale. This paper, based on site investigation, studies the material metabolism rule of phosphogypsum in the whole life cycle from production to resource utilization, and reveals the key issues in its raw materials, technology, products and policies, and from the perspective of government, enterprises, consumers and other stakeholders, targeted policy suggestions are put forward, hoping to provide scientific theoretical basis for the accurate management and resource utilization of phosphogypsum in China, also provides a scientific reference for controlling other mass solid wastes under the background of circular economy, zero-waste cities and carbon reduction.
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    WANG Wei
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (6): 75-89.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki resourcesindustries.20221026.001
    Abstract58)      PDF(pc) (1329KB)(32)       Save

    Green total factor productivity covers both economic performance and environmental performance, systematically marking the comprehensive competitiveness of green economy of a country or an area.  This paper uses the Global Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index method to measure the green total factor productivity of the key industrial pollution source survey enterprises listed in the national “Environmental Statistics Report System”, taking the city clusters of the Yangtze River Economic Belt as an example, explores the impacts of industrial agglomeration, urban agglomeration and their coupling mechanism on green total factor productivity, and uses panel tool variable method for empirical analysis to solve the endogenous problem among the three.  The industrial agglomeration has a U-shaped effect on the green total factor productivity of Jiangsu-Zhejiang-Shanghai city cluster, Wuhan city cluster, Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster, Chengdu-Chongqing city cluster, which first inhibits and then promotes.  Urban agglomeration has an inverted U-shape effect on the green total factor productivity of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan city cluster, Poyang Lake city cluster and Jianghuai city cluster, which is promoted first and then inhibited.  The coupling mechanism of industrial agglomeration and urban agglomeration has a negative effect on the green total factor productivity of Jianghuai city cluster and Poyang Lake city cluster.  It is concluded that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between industrial agglomeration and green total factor productivity, which is promoted first and inhibited later.  There is a U-shaped relationship between urban agglomeration and green total factor productivity, which first inhibits and then promotes.  From the coupling effect, the coupling mechanism of industrial agglomeration and urban agglomeration has a significant negative impact on green total factor productivity.  Industrial agglomeration promotes green total factor productivity chiefly via technical efficiency, as an inner way.  From the perspective of industrial heterogeneity, the promotion effect of clean industrial agglomeration on green total factor productivity is not significant, while the impact of pollution industrial agglomeration on green total factor productivity shows an inverted U-shaped characteristic of promotion first and inhibition later.  The impact of urban agglomeration on green total factor productivity of clean industries shows a U-shaped feature of inhibition first and promotion later, but little on the pollution industry.  From the perspective of city cluster heterogeneity, the impacts of industrial agglomeration, urban agglomeration and their coupling mechanism on the green total factor productivity of city clusters in the Yangtze River Economic Belt are quite different.

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    ZHU Zhiming, LI Yajie, FU Lei
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 81-89.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221012.004
    Abstract58)         PDF(mobile) (1658KB)(9)    Save
    Concept of “Clear waters and green mountains are as valuable as mountains of gold and silver” prevails with ecological priority and green development becoming a mutual developing path for cities. Yangtze River Delta city cluster is growing its industries with increasing pollution emission, especially the industrial wastewater pollution, thus largely decreasing residents’ euphoria. City cluster is becoming the growing center in replacement of central city. If other expansion of regions has impacts on industrial wastewater pollution remains a question. This paper, based on 246 prefectures’ data from 2003 to 2019 in China, uses synthetic control to study the impacts of enlarged city cluster on decreasing industrial wastewater pollution through the difference between the actual industrial wastewater emission and synthetic emission in Yangtze River Delta city cluster. Placebo and transformation is used to test its stability. Suggestions are given on how enlarged city cluster impact industrial wastewater emission. Enlargement policy largely decreases industrial wastewater emission in city cluster. Synthetic industrial wastewater emission without enlargement grows, but the actual industrial wastewater emission declines, which makes enlargement policy a necessity. Enlarged city cluster increases industrial wastewater emission through population density, but decreases it through economic growth. 
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    XIAO Yanfei, XIE Rengui, YIN Hui
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 51-60.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20220916.001
    Abstract57)      PDF(pc) (1134KB)(57)       Save
    Whether execution of environmental regulations leads to effective regional division of industrial chain and then its technical innovation and upgrade is key to collaborative emission reduction of trans-regional industrial chain under products inner division. This paper, focusing on chemicals industry in Yangtze River economic zone, uses pollution paradise theory, technical innovation theory and element combination theory to establish an evolutionary theoretical model and panel regression model to study the impacts of environmental regulations on regional division of industrial chain. Pollution Paradise effect of industrial chain division under environmental regulations exists in a short term, but of an upsidedown “U-shaped” impacts for a long term with critical value at 1.438 5, above which industrial chain will be decreased its specialization, unfavorable for industrial chain division. Environmental regulations are of technical promotion and elemental combination effects on regional division of industrial chain. Factors such as foreign investment also limits the execution of environmental regulations. This paper suggests governments make appropriate environmental regulation intensity, boot technical innovation, promote green innovative upgrade of industrial chain, focus on a rationally regional allocation and control adopting channels of foreign investments and create a good industrial environment. 
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    GAO Zhixin, XU Jixiao
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (2): 88-100.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230309.004
    Abstract56)      PDF(pc) (1215KB)(29)       Save

    How heavy pollution industries improve their capabilities in green technical innovation during performing social responsibilities is a hard issue to be facing in industrial transformation. This paper, based on China’s 2011 to 2020 stock-A-listed heavy pollution companies, consolidates their social responsibilities, executive incentives and green technical innovation into one framework, establishes a logistic system of green technical innovation of heavy pollution industries of owner-mechanism-results to verify their correlation between social responsibilities and green technical innovation. China’s heavy pollution industries are generally poor and imbalanced in performing their social responsibilities, however, conducting social responsibilities plays a positive role on their green technical innovation, more in nonstate-owned industries. Dominant incentives plays a mediating effect during social responsibilities impact green technical innovation, heavy pollution industries undertake social responsibilities, which may positively impact their green technical innovation through executive incentives. Recessive incentives can improve green technical innovation. This paper provides reference for China’s heavy pollution industries to reach a high-quality performance in green technical innovation, and provides important policy inspiration for optimizing the executive incentives of heavy pollution industries and enhancing the relationsheep between enterprise’s social responsibilities and green technology innovation.

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    JI Tianzheng, HUANG Qiaolong, ZHANG Tianling, et al
    Resources & Industries    2023, 25 (2): 37-51.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20230315.001
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (4233KB)(54)       Save
    This paper uses producer services data in Yangtze River economic zone to establish a compound weighted concentrating indicator which not only macroscopically stock concentration, but also reflects dynamic increment, and employs natural breakpoint classification, spatial auto-correlation, standard deviation ellipse and spatial metering model to study the spatial pattern evolution and factors of 2000 to 2019 producer services in Yangtze River economic zone. Its producer services shows a “west-low-east-high” concentrating distribution with a diminishing regional variance amid temporal-spatial evolution, and with remarkable localized coherence and spatial heterogeneity. Low-level radiation is mainly located in Hunan, Hubei and eastern Sichuan, high-level in Nanchang, Hangzhou and Shanghai centers. Chongqing, Sichuan and Hubei show a patter of “core-high-majority-low”. Spatially it is a “northeast-southwest” distributing pattern with its internal industries showing three spatial concentrating patterns, more centralized, and new entities favoring concentrating in the down-stream of Yangtze River. Concentration of producer services is variably influenced by human capital, governmental expense, house price, traffics and openness, most by human capital and traffics. This paper presents policy suggestions on promoting producer services in Yangtze River economic zone on the basis of regional heterogeneity and factors.
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    SONG Min, LIU Bin
    Resources & Industries    2022, 24 (5): 90-97.   DOI: 10.13776/j.cnki.resourcesindustries.20221013.001
    Abstract55)      PDF(pc) (1174KB)(36)       Save
    Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macro Great Bay Area (the Great Bay) plays a vital role in leading the global economy and technical advances by its abundant natural resources and featured openness. The overflow effect of foreign direct investment can realize the manufacturing agglomeration in the Great Bay, which has become a key path to the Great Bay's openness and diversification. This paper uses locality entropy to estimate the agglomeration of the Great Bay's manufacturing and its detailed industries during 2010 to 2019 and applies SEM and SDM to study the impacts of foreign direct investment on manufacturing agglomeration. Results show that the Great Bay has specific industrial division and notable industrial agglomeration. Here foreign direct investment has a remarkable spatial overflow effect on manufacturing agglomeration with impact coefficients at 0.213 and 0.121 under neighboring matrix and economic geographical matrix, respectively. Market size and technical innovation have impacting coefficients at 0.063 and 0.316 on the local manufacturing agglomeration, boosting the local manufacturing. Capital stock promotes the neighboring manufacturing agglomeration with an impacting coefficient at 0.918. This paper concludes that advantages of the Great Bay's industrial agglomeration can lead a balanced development for the entire Guangdong province or even for the global Zhu Delta area's industries. 
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